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a sultanate in the northern part of the island of Sumatra (Indonesia). Existed from the early 16th century to the early 20th century. One of the centers of diffusion of Islam in Indonesia.
The golden age of Atjeh came in the first half of the 17th century, when its sovereignty was recognized by most of the principalities of Sumatra and the western principalities of Malaya. It specialized in the pepper trade and had a powerful fleet. In the 16th and early 17th centuries, Atjeh fought successfully against the Portuguese. Atjeh’s importance declined after the capture of Malacca in 1641 by the Dutch, who also penetrated Atjeh’s vassal holdings. From 1873 to 1904 the Netherlands waged a colonial war against Atjeh. The people of Atjeh, under the leadership of Teku Umar, Tengku Tjhik di-Tiro, and others, heroically resisted the invaders. Partisan activities continued until 1913. Since 1956, Atjeh has been a province in the Republic of Indonesia.
REFERENCESSnouck Hurgronje, C. The Achehnese, vols. 1–2. Leiden, 1906.
Said, Mohammad. Atjeh sepandjang abad. Medan, 1961.
V. A. TIURIN