West Atlantic Languages

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

West Atlantic Languages


western Bantoid languages, a subfamily of the Niger-Congo languages (according to the classification of J. Greenberg); divided into two branches. The northern branch, which is distributed in Guinea, Portuguese Guinea, Senegal, and Gambia, numbered approximately 6.1 million speakers in 1964; the most important languages are Serer, Wolof, Dyola, Balante, Nalu, and Fulani. The southern languages, distributed in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, number approximately 1.7 million speakers; the most important languages are Temne, Kissi, Bulom, Limba, and Gola. The kinship of the West Atlantic languages is manifested on both the grammatical and lexical levels. The most characteristic common feature is the presence of a system of noun classes, marked chiefly by prefixes. Fulani, the language of the Fulbe (Foulah) people in the vast territory of western Africa, from Senegal and Mauritania in the west to northern Nigeria in the east, must be considered separately; its speakers number 4.5 million. The position of Fulani within the linguistic relationship was formerly unclear. (The German Africanist C. Meinhof related it to the Hamitic languages.) New investigations have finally permitted the classification of this language in the northern branch of the West Atlantic languages.


Meinhof, C. Die Sprachen der Hamiten. Hamburg, 1912.
Westermann, D., and M. A. Bryan. Languages of West Africa. London, 1952.
Greenberg, J. The Languages of Africa. Bloomington, Ind., 1963.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Bantu languages, noun class markers are always prefixal whereas in Atlantic languages, they can be both prefixal and suffixal.
As mentioned before in this section, the diminutives and augmentative classes are a major characteristic of the noun class systems of Bantu and Atlantic languages. Synchronically, we can distinguish between two types of evaluative classes.
Among the 256 polysemies attested in the database, only two patterns may be explained by a genetic reason: FULL/NUMEROUS in the three Atlantic languages (Bijogo, Jola, and Wolof), EXPENSIVE/HARD in the two Gur languages (Cerma and Nateni).
For instance, the four polysemous connections (7) common to Wolof and Jola can also be observed in other languages of the corpus, but only FULL/NUMEROUS is attested in another Atlantic language, namely Bijogo.
Their topics include from repetition to reduplication in Riau Indonesian, reduplication and consonant mutation in the Northern Atlantic languages, non-adjacency, enhancing contrast, phrasal reduplication and dual description, syntactic reduplication in Arabic, the Vedic verb, child language, pidgins and creoles, intensity and diminution triggered by reduplicating morphology, and American Sign Language.

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