Atmospheric Ozone

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Atmospheric Ozone

 

the substance that controls the absorption of solar radiation in the earth’s atmosphere. At low altitudes, where standard conditions of pressure and temperature prevail (760 mm Hg and 0°C), the average thickness of the ozone layer is negligible, ranging from 2.5 to 3 mm. This value drops to 2 mm in equatorial regions and reaches a maximum of 4 mm at high latitudes. Most of the atmospheric ozone is distributed in a layer, the ozonosphere, at altitudes between 10 and 50 km, with maximum concentration occurring between 20 and 25 km. The ozone level in the troposphere is very low and varies with time and altitude.

The formation and distribution of atmospheric ozone at different altitudes may be explained by the photochemical theory. Since ozone readily absorbs radiation in several spectral regions, especially at wavelengths below 2,900 angstroms, the extremely biologically active segment of the solar radiation spectrum never reaches the earth’s surface. The marked increase in temperature in the ozone layer is a result of this absorption.

Atmospheric ozone is studied by analyzing samples of air from various altitudes and by optical devices, such as spectro-photometers, which can be set up on the earth’s surface or launched into the atmosphere on balloons or rockets.

REFERENCES

Prokof’eva, I. A. Atmosfernyi ozon. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Mitra, S. K. Verkhniaia atmosfera. Moscow, 1955. Chapter 4. (Translated from English.)
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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