gravity wave

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gravity wave

[′grav·əd·ē ‚wāv]
(fluid mechanics)
A wave at a gas-liquid interface which depends primarily upon gravitational forces, surface tension and viscosity being of secondary importance.
A wave in a fluid medium in which restoring forces are provided primarily by buoyancy (that is, gravity) rather than by compression.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This data-set has been used to analyze the global distribution of atmospheric gravity wave energy.
Therefore, gravity acts as a restoring force against any vertical movement in the atmosphere, causing air cells to oscillate in the vertical, which is the basic mechanism behind atmospheric gravity waves. (1, 2) Atmospheric gravity waves are medium-scale waves with the horizontal wavelength ranging between several tens and several thousands of kilometers and a vertical wavelength of several kilometers.
In the 1980s a notable advance was made in understanding the role of atmospheric gravity waves in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere with the development of large atmospheric radars that detect the electromagnetic wave scattering caused by atmospheric turbulence.
Generally, satellite radiometer measurements using thermal emission from the atmosphere were intended to analyze large-scale atmospheric phenomena so that the altitude resolution was not sufficient to capture the vertical profiles of atmospheric gravity waves. (16) However, the zonal mean temperature variances attributed to atmospheric gravity waves in the stratosphere were observed with limb scanning infrared radiometer.
This paper reviews the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves in terms of their generation, propagation, and dissipation processes by chiefly referring to the results from the MU radar and GPS RO measurements.
Excitation of atmospheric gravity waves: A case study using the MU radar
Atmospheric gravity waves are generated by a variety of mechanisms that cause vertical displacements of air parcels, such as meteorological disturbances or cumulous convection within the troposphere, instability in jet streams, and the interactions of surface winds with topography.
The interaction between the cold and warm air masses was associated with rapid changes in wind velocity and temperature, resulting in emission of atmospheric gravity waves.
Much theoretical research has been conducted on the dynamical characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves, focusing mainly on the process by which gravity waves deposit their momentum and energy onto the background winds in the middle atmosphere.
The atmospheric gravity waves attenuate due to unstable phenomena associated with shear or convection instabilities.
Other dissipation processes of atmospheric gravity waves, though not described in detail here, include a change in their amplitude over time (referred to as "transience"), wave cascades due to the elastic interaction between waves, molecular viscosity and Newtonian radiative cooling.
Height profiles of atmospheric gravity waves from a coordinated observation.

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