atomic force microscope

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atomic force microscope

(AFM), device that uses a spring-mounted probe to image individual atoms on the surface of a material, first developed by Gerd BinnigBinnig, Gerd
, 1947–, German physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Frankfurt, 1978. At the IBM Research Laboratory in Zürich, Binnig and fellow researcher Heinrich Rohrer built the first scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument so sensitive that it can distinguish individual
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 in 1986. Unlike the scanning tunneling microscopescanning tunneling microscope
(STM), device for studying and imaging individual atoms on the surfaces of materials. The instrument was invented in the early 1980s by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, who were awarded the 1986 Nobel prize in physics for their work.
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, which is also a scanning probe microscope, the AFM can be used on materials that do not conduct electricity. In the original AFM, the probe traverses the surface, moving upward due to bumps and downward due to depressions; a laserlaser
[acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation], device for the creation, amplification, and transmission of a narrow, intense beam of coherent light. The laser is sometimes referred to as an optical maser.
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 beam reflected from the tip of the probe measures the up and down movements, and the pattern of reflected light creates an image of the surface. Another type of AFM measures the sideways deflection of the tip caused by friction as the probe moves across the surface; differences in friction can be used distinguish different atoms and molecules on the material. A third variation employs a magnetic probe; this probe does not touch the material but moves up and down in reaction to the magnetic forces between the tip and the surface. In a microchip-size AFM, the electronic circuitry and multiple probes are integrated on a sliver of silicon; although less sensitive than a full-size AFM, the device has applications in microelectronicsmicroelectronics,
branch of electronic technology devoted to the design and development of extremely small electronic devices that consume very little electric power. Although the term is sometimes used to describe discrete electronic components assembled in an extremely small
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 where the multiple probes make it possible to record images very quickly.
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atomic force microscope

[ə¦täm·ik ¦fȯrs ′mī¦krə‚skōp]
(engineering)
A device for mapping surface atomic structure by measuring the force acting on the tip of a sharply pointed wire or other object that is moved over the surface.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

AFM

(Atomic Force Microscope) A device used to image materials at the atomic level. AFMs are used to solve processing and materials problems in electronics, telecom, biology and other high-tech industries. Invented by IBM in 1986, it uses a ceramic or semiconductor tip one atom wide positioned at the end of a cantilevered bar. As the tip is moved over the material, it either continously touches or periodically taps the surface and bends as it is repelled or attracted to the structure. A laser picks up the deflections.

In contrast to a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which sends current to the surface being measured, AFMs can be used to image non-conductive materials. See probe storage, STM, microscopy and nanotechnology.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Ulcinaset al., "Breaking the speed limit with atomic force microscopy," Nanotechnology, vol.
Balogiannis, "The effects of UV irradiation on collagen D-band revealed by atomic force microscopy," Scanning, vol.
Submicron characterization of several epitaxial layers with different dopant doping concentration deposited on a silicon substrate by the vapour phase epitaxy was presented using atomic force microscopy and scanning microwave microscopy.
State-space model of freely vibrating and surface-coupled cantilever dynamics in atomic force microscopy, Physical Revew B 69(8), 085412.
MacPherson, "Carbon nanotube tips for atomic force microscopy," Nature Nanotechnology, vol.
(4.) Torii, A., et al., "A Method for Determining the Spring Constant of Cantilevers for Atomic Force Microscopy," Meas.
Vancso, "Imaging of melting and crystallization of poly (ethylene oxide) in real-time by hot-stage atomic force microscopy," Macromolecules, vol.
Atomic force microscopy measurement of the elastic properties of the kidney epithelial cells.
It was important that the substrate was a flat film that could be analyzed using both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-ATR FTIR).
It is suited for applications requiring high-resolution position feedback for control and has been proven in applications including optics positioning in photolithography equipment, XYZ stage positioning in atomic force microscopy and spindle position in the fluid-drenched environment of bearing race precision grinding equipment.
- Scanning probe microscopy such as scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy
Then they introduce the imaging techniques scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and more especially atomic force microscopy (AFM), which can identify and characterize features on the surfaces at the nanometer scale.