ionizing radiation

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ionizing radiation

[′ī·ə‚niz·iŋ ‚rād·ē′ā·shən]
(nucleonics)
Particles or photons that have sufficient energy to produce ionization directly in their passage through a substance. Also known as ionization radiation.
Particles that are capable of nuclear interactions in which sufficient energy is released to produce ionization.

Ionizing Radiation

 

any radiation whose interaction with a medium ultimately leads to the ionization of atoms and molecules of the medium. Types of ionizing radiation include electromagnetic radiation, X rays, gamma radiation, and laser radiation, as well as fluxes of a-particles, electrons, positrons, protons, neutrons, and other neutral and charged particles. Charged particles ionize the atoms of the medium directly upon collision if their kinetic energy is sufficient for ionization. When neutral particles (neutrons) or photons (quanta of X rays or y-radiation) pass through the medium, ionization is brought about by the secondary charged particles that form from the interaction of the primary particles with the medium.

Ionizing radiation plays an important role in various physical and chemical processes and in biology, medicine, agriculture, and industry. Many chemical reactions take place more readily or at considerably lower temperatures and pressures under the influence of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is used in sterilization, pasteurization, and preservation of foods and pharmaceuticals. It produces various mutations in microorganisms and plants.

At the same time, ionizing radiation exerts a destructive ac-tion on matter. [10–1103-2; updated]

ionizing radiation

When electromagnetic radiation is ionizing, it breaks the atomic bond and creates ions, which are atoms and molecules with fewer electrons or a greater number of electrons than they normally have. Examples are gamma rays, x-rays, CAT scans and ultraviolet light.

In contrast, non-ionizing radiation does not have enough energy to alter the electron structure; however, it may be harmful depending on the amount of exposure. See ion and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
References in periodicals archive ?
In spite of the heated discussions mounting evidence points that in doses less than 100 mSv the causative relation between exposure and carcinogenesis is entirely speculative (Higson, Boreham, Brooks, and Luan 2007; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2010; Tubiana, 2005; Ware, 2008).
(4.) United Nations Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, to the General Assembly.
The UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation conservatively estimates that 4,000 cases of thyroid cancer have arisen in areas close to Chernobyl, in Ukraine itself as well as in Belarus and Russia.
I think it is universally accepted that I am a cool person - as cool as anyone my age who grew up in a small town, never watched much television as a kid, has no sense of style and whose hairline is proof that in the 1950s some people were affected by atomic radiation.
Marnich said she wrote the play to capture the spirit, courage and integrity of the women, who were part of the world's first mass experience with deaths and injuries from atomic radiation.
This report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, delivered in 2006, describes variable rates of cancer related to atomic radiation beginning with epidemiological studies and evaluations of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other non-cancer diseases following radiation exposure.
John Taylor, 71, from South Shields, is among 900 former servicemen exposed to atomic radiation during the 50s and 60s.
Charlesby, Atomic Radiation and Polymers, Pergamon, Oxford (1960).
No doubt, whenever we hear the phrase 'atomic radiation', we are haunted by fear and consternation, as it is associated in laymen's minds with misconceptions about the danger of nuclear radiation, which in turn is associated in their minds with devastation and destruction brought about by the two atomic bombs dropped by the US onto the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in addition to what media outlets circulate every now and then about the risks of some nuclear countries' nuclear arsenals and the concept of nuclear explosions and radiation resulting there from".
Using the estimates of ionizing radiation dose to members of the public from nuclear activities between 1943 and 1990, as estimated by UNSCEAR (The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) I will estimate deaths and serious injuries caused by this exposure.