The ambient air quality level of criteria pollutants in an attainment area
cannot exceed the baseline concentration(36) plus an increment.(37) The BACT standards that were being imposed on new and modified sources helped to insure that these new sources would not cause the area increments to be exceeded.
permits--Before, prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) permits were only required for expanding or significantly modifying operations.
If the PSD requirements worked as my account holds and actually imposed costs on industry that would not have been imposed without PSD requirements, then one would expect that after PSD requirements began to be imposed, holding all else equal, there was an observable slowing of industrial migration (in the sense of new plant openings) in relatively undeveloped, attainment areas
of the United States.
In general, these rules apply in ozone non attainment areas
to facilities that have at least 15 lb/day of solvent cleaning VOC emissions (uncontrolled).
Alternatively, Henderson (1996) found that a switch from attainment to non-attainment led to an exodus of the more severely polluting industries from the non-attainment areas to attainment areas
. On the other hand, List and McHone (2000) find evidence that stricter standards could lead to the creation of pollution havens.
We have seen the passing of a pair of major attainment deadlines for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and approximately 70 areas, most of which previously had excessive ozone levels, have been redesignated as attainment areas
In the later years of regulation, nonattainment status reduces expected "births" in polluting industries by 40-50 percent, resulting in a shift of polluting activity to cleaner, less populated attainment areas
. Starting in the 1970s, effects appear first for industries with bigger plant sizes and then, within industries, first for corporate plants relative to the much smaller non-affiliate, or single-plant firm sector.
surrounding these "transitional" areas will be designated as "areas of influence" (AOIs) with accompanying requirements to implement at least some of the pollution control strategies required in non-attainment areas.
"Larger companies (in current attainment areas
) that may have ready made decisions on technologies to satisfy regulations, may now be in a non-attainment zone and they may have to rethink their whole solution to meeting the regulations," said Richard Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Assn.
MPOs serving large regions (regions with populations greater than 200,000) and MPOs from attainment areas
were somewhat over-represented in the results.(3)
Firms that located in non-attainment areas (i.e., areas where the NAAQS were not met) were subject to substantially stiffer regulation than firms in attainment areas
during this period.
The EPA speaks in terms of attainment areas
. In those areas where the EPA recognizes air quality to be less than acceptable, it is considered a non-attainment area.