Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

(redirected from Attaturk)

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal


Born 1881, in Salonika; died Nov. 10, 1938, in Istanbul. Founder and first president (1923–38) of the Turkish Republic. The Great Turkish National Assembly gave him the surname Atatürk (literally, father of the Turks) in 1934, when surnames were introduced.

Atatürk was born into the family of a timber merchant, a former customs clerk. He received a secondary military education in Salonika and Monastir (Bitola), and a higher education in Istanbul, where he graduated from the General Staff Academy in January 1905. He participated in the Young Turks movement. However, soon after the Young Turks revolution of 1908, he withdrew from the Committee of Union and Progress. He fought at the front in the Turko-Italian War of 1911–12, in the Second Balkan War in 1913, and in World War I (1914–18). In 1916 he was promoted to the rank of general and received the title of pasha. In 1919 he led a national liberation movement in Anatolia. Under Atatürk’s leadership, a congress of the bourgeois-revolutionary Leagues for the Defense of Rights was held in Erzurum and Sivas in 1919, and on Apr. 23, 1920, the Great Turkish National Assembly was formed in Ankara and declared itself the supreme governing body. As president of the assembly and after September 1921 as supreme commander in chief as well, Atatürk led the armed forces in the national liberation war against the Anglo-Greek intervention. As a result of victory in the battles at the Sakarya River (Aug. 23-Sept. 13, 1921), the assembly conferred on him the rank of marshal and the title of ghazi. Under the command of Atatürk, the Turkish Army defeated the interventionists in 1922.

On Atatürk’s initiative, the sultanate was abolished on Nov. 1, 1922, and on Oct. 29, 1923, Turkey was declared a republic. The caliphate was eliminated on Mar. 3, 1924, and a number of progressive reforms of a bourgeois and national character were introduced in the areas of government and administrative structure, justice, culture, and mode of life. The People’s Party (after 1924, the Republican People’s Party), which Atatürk established in 1923 on the base of the Leagues for the Defense of Rights and of which Atatürk became lifetime chairman, opposed the reactionary attempts of feudal-clerical and comprador circles. In the area of foreign affairs, Atatürk aspired to maintain a friendly relationship between Turkey and Soviet Russia, which had rendered disinterested aid to the Turkish people in the years of their struggle against the imperialists and later during the development of their national economy.


Nutuk, vols. i-3. Istanbul, 1934. (Russian edition: Put’ novoi Turtsii, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1929–34.)
Atatürk’ ün söylev ve demeçleri, [vols.] 1–3. Ankara, 1945–59. (Russian abridged edition: Izbrannye rechi i vystupleniia.Edited and with an introduction by A. F. Miller. Moscow, 1966.)


References in periodicals archive ?
Pour rappel historique, la tradition des derviches tourneurs (interdite a la venue de Mustapha Kemal Attaturk au pouvoir a Istanbul, avant d'etre retablie) s'est repandue dans tous les pays voisins de la Turquie, comme la Syrie, la Macedoine, la Bosnie et l'Egypte.
Mustafa Kamal Attaturk, overall Turkish commander at Gallipoli, and Otto Liman von Sanders, a German general and military advisor to Turkey, focused on fortifying the Dardanelles after the British attack of November 1.
Top scorer Ba was T absent for the Black Eagles 1-0 loss to Eskisehirspor last Sunday with a calf injury, but has managed to recover in time to face the Reds in Istanbul's Attaturk Stadium.
The Sunni caliphate was delcared ended after 13 centuries in 1924 by Kemal Attaturk, when he established the Turkish Republic.
Mr Kaskeen politely explained that because Attaturk had been a secular-minded leader, Rouhani deemed it against his principles to perform such a protocol.
Extra time and penalties meant he didn't leave a euphoric - Attaturk Stadium until 2:40am - with his taxi still waiting.
Commissioner Traffic Satyendra Garg said: "Entire Central Vista including Rajpath, Vijay Chowk and all road leading to India Gate will be closed for general traffic, Kamal Attaturk Marg also closed.
After the abolishment of the Ottoman caliphate by Mustafa Kamal Attaturk in 1924, the al-Azhar University came under the Egyptian government and her sultans.
What began with Nasser in Egypt - or even Attaturk in Turkey - will end with Assad: the regime that represses local and ethnic difference in the name of a nationalism centred cultishly on the leader.
ISLAMABAD, February 16, 2012 (Balochistan Times): Annual General Body Meeting of Sir Syed Memorial Society will be held at Aiwan-e-Sir Syed, Attaturk Avenue, Islamabad, on Friday at 04:00 pm.
Islamabad, February 16, 2012 (Frontier Star): Annual General Body Meeting of Sir Syed Memorial Society will be held at Aiwan-e-Sir Syed, Attaturk Avenue, Islamabad, on Friday at 04:00 pm.
The growing strength of Islamism in Turkey may remove its competitive advantage of having a secular government since the days of Attaturk in the 1920's.