We suppose that a close value should be obtained for the equivalent IML structure in the same band, due to the correct prediction of the current 3D simulator, for instance the simulated and measured value of the PGL

attenuation constant (Figure 14).

The energy loss of each mode in the waveguide is characterized by the

attenuation constant associated with that mode.

The complex wave mode implies that the phase constant and the

attenuation constant of the propagation constant are both nonzero.

In Figure 6, the normalized minimum

attenuation constant [alpha]/[k.

Figures 3(a) and (b) show the

attenuation constant ([alpha]([omega])) and depth of penetration (d[([omega]).

The signal through a lossless interconnect, or an interconnect with an

attenuation constant with frequency, will persevere its rise time at the RX.

Here h = h'-ih" is the complex propagation constant where h' is the phase constant and h" is the

attenuation constant (waveguide losses).

The knowledge of the distribution of the electromagnetic field in the microwave structures makes possible the knowledge of the constant of propagation of the waves, of its dependence on frequency, of the propagation speed, of the phase and

attenuation constant.

is introduced, the

attenuation constant [alpha] is non-null.

In (33), [R] and v denote the pul

attenuation constant and the phase velocity of both modes, whereas c denotes the free-space velocity.

In order to gain further insight into the body effects on high-frequency interconnections, wide-band extraction methods can be used to obtain

attenuation constant, characteristic impedance, and effective material parameters for the lines [16-18].

This discrepancy is due to the higher relative permittivity and conductivity value of the Vitreous Humor as the medium, which resulted in higher

attenuation constant a.