Neuropathy

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neuropathy

[nu̇′räp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any disease affecting neurons.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Neuropathy

 

a functional weakness of the nervous system accompanied by a decrease in the absolute threshold (also called the stimulus, or sensitivity, threshold); the condition is frequently congenital.

Neuropathy arises as a disturbance in the function of the autonomic nervous system owing to deleterious influences on the fetus as a whole (for example, infection in the pregnant mother, trauma, or poisoning) or on the individual embryonic cells (as occurs when the parents suffer from alcoholism). Family circumstances, upbringing, and illnesses suffered by the infant play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathy. The symptoms usually emerge in childhood or adolescence. When neuropathy occurs in early childhood, disturbances of sleep and appetite are most characteristic; the infant has difficulty in falling asleep, awakes easily, suckles poorly, and frequently spits up. Later, vomiting occurs, and either diarrhea or constipation develop.

From the preschool years on, increased general excitability and the rapid onset of fatigue and exhaustion are observed, in addition to continued disturbances of sleep and appetite. Children who suffer from neuropathy blush easily in response to irritation. Motor hyperactivity, nervous tics, and stammering are frequent. In adolescence, autonomic-vascular instability becomes more acute, as evidenced by frequently occurring nervous palpitation, abrupt shifts in blood pressure, headaches, dizzy spells, and fainting spells. The prognosis is favorable, with the neuropathic symptoms usually disappearing with age.

REFERENCES

Simson, T. Nevropatii, psikhopatii i reaktivnye sostoianiia mladencheskogo vozrasta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Sukhareva, G. E. Klinicheskie lektsii po psikhiatrii detskogo vozrasta, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

L. M. SHMAONOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(5.) Zeng FG, Oba S, Garde S, Sininger Y, Starr A.Temporal and speech processing deficits in auditory neuropathy. Neuroreport 1999; 10: 3429-35.
Outcome of cochlear implantation in pediatric auditory neuropathy. Otol Neurotol 2002; 23: 328-32.
Study of cochlear microphonic potentials in auditory neuropathy. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol.
A multicenter study on the prevalence and spectrum of mutations in the otoferlin gene (oToF) in subjects with nonsyndromic hearing impairment and auditory neuropathy. Hum Mutat.
Speech perception in users of hearing aid with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.
Given that the combination of present OAEs in patients with abnormal ABR signifies an auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony hearing pathology, we can state that, in HR infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, partial or full ABR recovery may possibly take place in the following months.
Currently, diagnosing auditory neuropathy requires specific testing.
Cochlear microphonics was observed which reversed with change in polarity of stimuli suggestive of auditory neuropathy (Fig 6, 7).
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) provides such an objective measure of auditory function; its uses have included evaluation of hearing thresholds in infants, children, and individuals who are difficult to test, assessment of auditory neuropathy, and screening for retrocochlear function [9].
He was diagnosed at Middlesbrough's James Cook University Hospital with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder - a condition which means the hearing organ, hearing nerve and brain are not synched together and so any hearing is distorted or absent.
"He was diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder - a condition which means the hearing organ, hearing nerve and brain are not synched together and so any hearing is distorted or absent." Finn also suffered other complications - he was diagnosed with a convergent squint, low muscle tone, severe acid reflux, cow's milk protein intolerance, lack of facial feeling, no pain threshold and no taste.