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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an ice body that forms as a result of the layer-by-layer freezing of rivers or underground waters that flow onto the surface or into a cavity in rock as a result of the discharge of subterranean or surface water under pressure when river channels or water-bearing horizons freeze solid. A distinction is made among the surface-water form, the subterranean-water form, and mixed forms of Aufeis, depending on their origin.

Aufeis is most widespread in the region of permanently frozen rock, but it is also common in regions with deep seasonal freezing. The intensity of development of Aufeis formations depends on the reserves of subterranean water and the water supply of the preceding summer and on the depth to which the seasonally thawing layer freezes. The places of emergence of Aufeis are confined to sectors where river channels narrow sharply, and also to centers of subterranean water discharge. A distinction is made between dry Aufeis, which is formed by one-time water discharge, and wet Aufeis, which is covered with water that gradually flows onto the surface of the ice.

Aufeis ranges in area from tens and hundreds of square meters to hundreds of square kilometers and more. The largest areas of Aufeis are observed in Yakutia and the northeastern USSR. Perennial Aufeis, which thaws only partially during the summer, is found there. The total volume of Aufeis in the northeastern USSR is about 25 cu km, which is greater than the volume of all glaciers in that region. Aufeis plays a significant role in feeding rivers, especially in regions where snowfall is light and in regions where little precipitation falls in the early summer (Yakutia and Transbaikalia). It causes damage by covering over and destroying roads and by deforming buildings.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chapter 6 introduces different kinds of massive ground ice, mostly found below ground except icing or aufeis, which is formed above the ground surface.
Layers of ice, called aufeis, began to grow and spread across the flat tundra.
First, there was the Aufeis Reach that is known for its large sheets of ice.
Glacierization in the Maritimes during the Younger Dryas proceeded simultaneously in the uplands and lowlands by concomitant upland snowfield and lowland aufeis accretion with small remaining outliers of Late Wisconsinan ice acting as "seeds" for incipient glaciers.
Furthermore, she uses too much terminology for a popular book: Archaea, aufeis, hyporheic, phreatophyte, strangmoor, ombrotrophic, anisotrophic, etc.
Such stands often occur in floodplains of large, spring-fed braided rivers and aufeis deposits, where ''thaw bulbs" provide an active layer deeper than that in the surrounding tundra for sufficient rooting depth (Bockheim et al., 2003).
Aufeis of the Firth River basin, northern Yukon, Canada: Insights into permafrost hydrogeology and karst.
During the long winter months, the Kuparuk River is frozen and limited discharge (if any) occurs from groundwater springs that form isolated aufeis (Kane et al., 1991; Yoshikawa et al., 2007).
Because of the stable groundwater flow during the extended winter season, aufeis areas develop downstream from each perennial spring, and the size or mass of each aufeis area is proportional to the flow volume of the associated spring.
Phase change manifests itself in many ways in cold region hydrology and is active in many forms, such as snow melt, transpiration, evaporation, sublimation, soil freezing and thawing, river and lake ice formation and decay, and aufeis development and melt.
They reached the glacier in two days and managed to get their own Ski-Doo up the steep frozen waterfalls and aufeis fields that form each winter below the glacier's terminus.
29 km), velocity (up to 2.25 [m*s.sup.-1]), and the year-round presence of aufeis (layered ice buildup).