Age of Enlightenment

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Age of Enlightenment

the period of intellectual ferment leading up to the French Revolution, which was distinguished by a fundamental questioning of traditional modes of thought and social organization, and sought to replace these with an exclusive reliance on human reason in determining social practices. Many thinkers and philosophers were associated with these developments, amongst them Voltaire (1694-1778), MONTESQUIEU, Holbach (1723-89), Helvétius (1715-71), Diderot (1713-84) and ROUSSEAU. Nor was the movement merely confined to France; it also embraced numerous other thinkers elsewhere, including members of the so-called SCOTTISH ENLIGHTENMENT, such as Adam FERGUSON and John MILLAR, whose work was especially sociological. Despite a common accord on the importance of reason in human affairs, major differences of view existed between thinkers: Voltaire popularized English liberal doctrines of NATURAL RIGHTS; Holbach and Helvétius took these doctrines further and argued for UTILITARIANISM and representative government; while Rousseau's concept of the SOCIAL CONTRACT led to holistic conceptions of state and society realized in the French Revolution. In retrospect, much Enlightenment thought is seen as superficial, lacking an adequate empirical research base, and above all overconfident about human PROGRESS and the ultimate triumph of Reason. However, the Enlightenment era signalled a final decisive break between traditional and modern thought, and between traditional and modern forms of social organization. See also COMTE, RATIONALISM, GRAND NARRATIVES.
References in periodicals archive ?
Die politischen Aussagen der rumanischen Filme waren ursprunglich genauso wenig auf die Aufklarung des vergangenen Regimes angelegt, sondern vielmehr einer gegenwartsbezogenen, emotionalen Herangehensweise unterstellt.
However, Aufklarung Katholizismus was completely undone (3) by the super-reactionary retrenchment of nearly half a century by two of the longest-reigning popes in the middle of the nineteenth century: Gregory XVI (1831-46) and Pius IX (1846-78).
Seit je hat Aufklarung im umfassendsten Sinn fortschreitenden Denkens das Ziel verfolgt, von den Menschen die Furcht zu nehmen und sie als Herren einzusetzen.
Lifschitz's argument will surely enrich understandings of the Enlightenment generally and of the Aufklarung specifically.
Luhmann, Soziologische Aufklarung 1: Aufsatze zur Theorie sozialer Systeme (pp.
Recontextualizing these characters as types belonging to the German Aufklarung, Ford successfully rehabilitates Figures who are often derided for their ineffectual presence in the operas' scenarios.
Deutsches Geistesleben zwischen Reformation und Aufklarung.
En nuestros dias, la disolucion de las grandes tradiciones teologicoreligiosas y de las imagenes del mundo que corresponden a estas, asi como sus consecuencias en el ambito politico, moral y espiritual en general; la revolucion tecnica y las equivocidades generadas en torno a la razon a partir de las propuestas de la Aufklarung, asi como las pretensiones "totalizadoras" de los idealismos y los dogmatismos que pretenden abarcar de una vez todo el saber y las significaciones posibles en relacion a las "ultimidades" de lo humano y de lo divino, resultan inseparables de las nuevas variedades de los sistemas y de las totalidades, en los que todo orden humano pretende ser agotado.
El mismo texto en el tomo V de la edicion alemana de la misma obra: Die Kirche im Zaitalter des Absolutimus und der Aufklarung, Freiburg, Herder, 1985, 180-193.
1978) (5) Foucault analiza la critica y la Aufklarung.
Epochen der Bibelauslegung Band IV: Von der Aufklarung bis zum 20 was published in 2001 by Verlag D.