Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Related to Aurangzeb: Shah Jahan


Aurangzeb (ôrˈəngzĕbˌ) or Aurangzib (–zĭbˌ), 1618–1707, Mughal emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah Jahan. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the heir apparent. When Shah Jahan fell ill in 1658, Aurangzeb seized the opportunity to fight and defeat Dara and two other brothers in a battle for succession. He imprisoned his father for life and ascended the throne at Agra with the reign title Alamgir [world-shaker]. A scholarly, austere man, devoted to Islam, he persecuted the Hindus, destroying their temples and monuments. He executed the guru of the Sikhs (see Sikhism) when he refused to embrace Islam. Although the Mughal empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb, it was also fatally weakened by revolts of the Sikhs, Rajputs, and Jats in the north and the rebellion of the Marathas in the Deccan. From 1682, Aurangzeb concentrated all his energies on crushing the Marathas, but his costly campaigns were only temporarily successful and further weakened his authority in the north. The Mughal empire fell apart soon after his death.


See biographies by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (5 vol., 1912–24) and M. Lal (1988); studies by S. Lane-Poole (1964) and R. C. Hallissey (1977).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



Born 1618; died 1707. Last true ruler of the Mogul Empire (1658–1707). Son of Shah Jahan.

Aurangzeb was vicegerent of the Deccan from 1636 to 1644 and 1652 to 1657. In the war for the throne among the four sons of Shah Jahan (1658–59), Aurangzeb was victorious less because of his military superiority than because of intrigue, bribery, and deceit. He killed all the other claimants to the throne and put his father under house arrest.

Aurangzeb waged wars to seize Kandahar and Balkh in the north and Ahmadnahar, Bijapur, and Golconda in the Deccan. To pay for these costly wars, Aurangzeb increased taxes and renewed the jizya. Carrying out a policy of Muslim intolerance, he destroyed Hindu temples, confiscated the property of Hindu merchants, and annexed the lands of Hindu feudal lords. This provoked a Maratha uprising throughout the country, led by Sivaji, the Jats, the Rajput princes, and the Sikhs. The disintegration of the empire was accelerated by Aurangzeb’s harsh religious intolerance. At the end of Aurangzeb’s life, his sons rebelled against him. Under Aurangzeb, European trading companies became stronger in India.


Bernier, F. Istoriia poslednikh politicheskikh perevorotov v gosudarstve Velikogo Mogola. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936. (Translated from French.)
Sarkar, J. The History of Aurangzib[2nd-3rd ed.], vols. 1–6. Calcutta, 1924–28.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In an issued statement on Wednesday, Maryam Aurangzeb said Prime Minister should issue list of those tax evaders whose 300 billion rupees have been waived off.
Ahmed Jawad while commenting on the press conference of the PML-N leaders said that Maryum Aurangzeb gave a lecture about their own Govt's economy which had taught corruption as legal and made theft permissible.
'Today Imran Khan is forming an inquiry commission to inquire the unprecedented 7.6 trillion increase in debt over last one year due to his incompetence!,' Aurangzeb said on Twitter.
Aurangzeb was abducted from Pulwama by terrorists and later his bullet-ridden body was recovered on June 14 last year.
In a statement, Aurangzeb said, 'I condemn the move to not let Nawaz Sharif meet his family even on the third day of Eid.
It was presented in the National Assembly by PML-N members Rana Tanveer Hussain, Ahsan Iqbal, Murtaza Javed Abbasi, Marriyum Aurangzeb, Muhammad Sajjad and Afreen Khan.
Aurangzeb asked if Umar's policies were so good and the problems were from the PML-N government, why was he asked to step down.
Earlier, AMMM Aurangzeb Chowdhury formally took the command of the naval force from outgoing navy chief Admiral Nizamuddin Ahmed.
Islamabad -- Pakistan Muslim League-N spokesperson Marriyum Aurangzeb on Saturday criticised Information Minister Fawad Chaudhry's tweet and said only he can do politics over bodies.
Islamabad -- The National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has started investigations against former information minister Maryam Aurangzeb for her alleged involvement embezzlement, credible sources said on Friday.
ISLAMABAD -- Former information minister and Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz leader Marriyum Aurangzeb has claimed that by releasing an anonymous application against her to the media, the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has defied the orders of the chief justice of Pakistan and, therefore, committed contempt of the court.