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Related to Aurengzeb: Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb Alamgir


(ôr`əngzĕb') or


(–zĭb'), 1618–1707, MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the heir apparent. When Shah Jahan fell ill in 1658, Aurangzeb seized the opportunity to fight and defeat Dara and two other brothers in a battle for succession. He imprisoned his father for life and ascended the throne at Agra with the reign title Alamgir [world-shaker]. A scholarly, austere man, devoted to Islam, he persecuted the Hindus, destroying their temples and monuments. He executed the guru of the Sikhs (see SikhismSikhism
, religion centered in the Indian state of Punjab, numbering worldwide some 19 million. Some 300,000 Sikhs live in Britain, and there are smaller communities in North America, Australia, and Singapore.
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) when he refused to embrace Islam. Although the Mughal empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb, it was also fatally weakened by revolts of the Sikhs, Rajputs, and Jats in the north and the rebellion of the Marathas in the Deccan. From 1682, Aurangzeb concentrated all his energies on crushing the Marathas, but his costly campaigns were only temporarily successful and further weakened his authority in the north. The Mughal empire fell apart soon after his death.


See biographies by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (5 vol., 1912–24) and M. Lal (1988); studies by S. Lane-Poole (1964) and R. C. Hallissey (1977).



Born 1618; died 1707. Last true ruler of the Mogul Empire (1658–1707). Son of Shah Jahan.

Aurangzeb was vicegerent of the Deccan from 1636 to 1644 and 1652 to 1657. In the war for the throne among the four sons of Shah Jahan (1658–59), Aurangzeb was victorious less because of his military superiority than because of intrigue, bribery, and deceit. He killed all the other claimants to the throne and put his father under house arrest.

Aurangzeb waged wars to seize Kandahar and Balkh in the north and Ahmadnahar, Bijapur, and Golconda in the Deccan. To pay for these costly wars, Aurangzeb increased taxes and renewed the jizya. Carrying out a policy of Muslim intolerance, he destroyed Hindu temples, confiscated the property of Hindu merchants, and annexed the lands of Hindu feudal lords. This provoked a Maratha uprising throughout the country, led by Sivaji, the Jats, the Rajput princes, and the Sikhs. The disintegration of the empire was accelerated by Aurangzeb’s harsh religious intolerance. At the end of Aurangzeb’s life, his sons rebelled against him. Under Aurangzeb, European trading companies became stronger in India.


Bernier, F. Istoriia poslednikh politicheskikh perevorotov v gosudarstve Velikogo Mogola. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936. (Translated from French.)
Sarkar, J. The History of Aurangzib[2nd-3rd ed.], vols. 1–6. Calcutta, 1924–28.


References in periodicals archive ?
Although Aurengzeb has often been frowned upon by many liberals for banning music, poetry and painting, which in turn destroyed a major cultural heritage, he should receive due credit for popularizing calligraphy as an art and for promoting artists to create exquisite manuscripts.
com, Shahid Nadeem, Hira Tariq Niaz, Aurengzeb Muzammil and Tariq Niaz
His wife and a senior professor of journalism, Dr Sherry Ricchiardi, Lahore Press Club President Sarmad Bashir, Vice President Amir Waqas and senior photojournalist Raja Aurengzeb were also present on the occasion.
When he died, Aurengzeb buried him in the Taj Mahal next to his wife.
The committee appreciated Minster for State Marriyum Aurengzeb and secretary of information broadcasting on announcing new cultural and film policy and hoped that it would boost Pakistani film industry not only in the country but internationally as well.
A single bench of the IHC comprising Justice Miangul Hassan Aurengzeb will hear the plea moved through Sardar Latif Khosa advocate.
Justice Athar Minullah and Justice Mian Gul Hasan Aurengzeb heard the petitions.
A three-member IHC bench headed by Justice Amir Farooq and comprising Justice Mohsin Akhtar Kayani and Justice Miangul Hasan Aurengzeb also issued notices to the respondents, including the ECP, PTI's dissident member Akbar S Babar and others seeking their reply till November 7.
District president of PML N, Mian Humayun Shah, Aurengzeb Khan of Kot and Sifayat Ullah were also present on the occasion.
Pakistan Embassy chargA d'affairs Aurengzeb said of the 14 Pakistanis injured, three were still in critical condition and being treated at the BDF Hospital.
The Jati Umra meeting was attended by Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, Punjab Chief Minister Shehbaz Sharif, Prime Minister AJK Raja Farooq Haider, Federal Minister Ahsan Iqbal, Khawaja Saad Rafiq, Maryam Aurengzeb, Abdul Qadir Baloch, Mir Hasil Bazinjo, Senator Pervaiz Rashid, Maryam Nawaz Sharif, Mahmood Khan Achakzai of PkMAP, former chief minister of National Party Dr Abdul Maalik Baloch, Senator Sardar Yaqub Khan Nasir, Punjab Minister Rana Sanaullah Khan, Balochistan PML-N legislators Anita Irfan, Kishor Jattak, Samina Khan, Sardar Durr Muhammad, Naseebullah Barzai, Abdul Rahim Ziaratwal and Jamal Shah Kakar.
On this special day, Member National Assembly (MNA) Tahira Aurengzeb stressed the need for having awareness campaigns for male in order to educate them for the rights of women in society.