Aurobindo Ghose

Ghose, Aurobindo

(ôrōbĭn`dō gōsh), 1872–1950, Indian nationalist leader and mystic philosopher. Born in Bengal, he was sent to England and lived there for 14 years, completing his education at Cambridge. Returning to India in 1893, he plunged into the study of Indian languages and culture. The agitation against the partition (1905) of Bengal drew him into the nationalist movement, and for several years he acted as leader of a secret revolutionary organization, becoming well known through his eloquent patriotic writings. He was eventually jailed for subverting British rule and while in prison experienced visions that completely altered his outlook. On release from prison he announced his withdrawal from active political life and retired to Pondicherry (now Puducherry) in S India where he devoted himself to the practice of yoga and to writing. In his major works, all written in English, he formulates the metaphysics and system of spiritual discipline that he called Integral Yoga (Purna Yoga). Rejecting the traditional ideal of world-renunciation and negation of physical existence, he based his philosophy on the principle of the descent of divine force and consciousness into both the individual and the universal processes of nature and history. He described evolution as the effect of progressively higher forces, of which the highest is the "supramental" force that initiates man's final transformation into a state of perfection. In 1926, Sri Aurobindo, as he came to be called, retired into seclusion. He put in charge of his disciples his spiritual consort (ShaktiShakti
[Skt.,=power], in Hinduism, name given to the female consorts of male deities. The Shakti personifies the dynamic, manifesting energy that creates the universe, while the male god represents the static, unmanifest aspect of the divine reality.
..... Click the link for more information.
), Mira Richard (1878–1973), a French-born woman of Egyptian descent who had joined him in Pondicherry in 1914. His seclusion marked the official establishment of his spiritual community, or ashram. The ashram, the largest in India, remains active. In 1968 construction was begun for a utopian city called Auroville to function on the principles of Aurobindo's philosophy. His writings include The Life Divine (1949), The Synthesis of Yoga (1948), and Essays on the Gita (1921–28, repr. 1950).


See S. Mitra, The Liberator Sri Aurobindo, India, and the World (1970); B. Bruteau, Worthy is the World (1971); K. Gandhi, ed., Contemporary Relevance of Sri Aurobindo (1973); R. A. McDermott, ed., The Essential Aurobindo (1973).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Tagore family immediately comes to mind, but it is another kind of modernity, embodied by Aurobindo Ghose, that led to the foundation of Auroville.
It used to be a French colony, and home to a major Indian poet and philosopher, Aurobindo Ghose, and is now a popular tourist destination and centre of pilgrimage.
The British used sedition against Mahatma Gandhi, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Aurobindo Ghose. Section 124 A pertaining to sedition has been invoked several times by the government since independence but the charges have rarely stuck.
Although, of course, many mystics may have expressed an anarchist sensibility--Lao Tzu, William Blake, Nicolai Berdyaev, Aurobindo Ghose and Leo Tolstoy are examples.
Although she does not treat Aurobindo Ghose in her Companion, a stanza that she quotes in the Anthology speaks volumes in assonance with the poets quoted above:
He was granted permission to photograph the Ashram and this eventually resulted in an album, featuring both Sri Aurobindo Ghose and his French companion Mirra Alfassa, often referred to as The Mother.
Another figure quoted by Mishra, Indian nationalist Aurobindo Ghose (1872-1950), pointed out how British Christian empire-builders covered their depredations in India with a 'cloak of virtue, benevolence and unselfish altruism'.
The concluding section contains 8 chapters on the writings and philosophy of key thinkers in peace including Ghandi, Ghaffar Khan, Aurobindo Ghose, Raimon Panikkar, and Gregory Bateson.
Wadis, Aurobindo Ghose, Mohandas Gandhi, among many others (including the British suffrage leaders, the Pethiek-Lawrenees and the Pankhursts).
Robert Minor examines Sri Aurobindo Ghose, a leader in the extremist wing of the Indian nationalist movement and a famous yoga teacher.
Aurobindo Ghose (1872-1950) parlayed the tactics of boycott and obstruction into a preeminent role on the nationalist stage, while radical Bengal leader B.C.
The first tells of the collaboration from 1902 until 1910 between Irish-born Margaret Noble, who became, as Sister Nivedita, a Bengali activist, and Aurobindo Ghose, a Cambridge-educated Bengali who was for a while actively engaged in nationalist politics: 'It was surely not coincidental that the development of campaigns based on boycott and swadeshi (the locally made) occurred in Bengal not long after the onset in Ireland of the Celtic Revival' (p.