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Related to Aurungzeb: Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb Alamgir


(ôr`əngzĕb') or


(–zĭb'), 1618–1707, MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the heir apparent. When Shah Jahan fell ill in 1658, Aurangzeb seized the opportunity to fight and defeat Dara and two other brothers in a battle for succession. He imprisoned his father for life and ascended the throne at Agra with the reign title Alamgir [world-shaker]. A scholarly, austere man, devoted to Islam, he persecuted the Hindus, destroying their temples and monuments. He executed the guru of the Sikhs (see SikhismSikhism
, religion centered in the Indian state of Punjab, numbering worldwide some 19 million. Some 300,000 Sikhs live in Britain, and there are smaller communities in North America, Australia, and Singapore.
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) when he refused to embrace Islam. Although the Mughal empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb, it was also fatally weakened by revolts of the Sikhs, Rajputs, and Jats in the north and the rebellion of the Marathas in the Deccan. From 1682, Aurangzeb concentrated all his energies on crushing the Marathas, but his costly campaigns were only temporarily successful and further weakened his authority in the north. The Mughal empire fell apart soon after his death.


See biographies by Sir Jadunath Sarkar (5 vol., 1912–24) and M. Lal (1988); studies by S. Lane-Poole (1964) and R. C. Hallissey (1977).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



Born 1618; died 1707. Last true ruler of the Mogul Empire (1658–1707). Son of Shah Jahan.

Aurangzeb was vicegerent of the Deccan from 1636 to 1644 and 1652 to 1657. In the war for the throne among the four sons of Shah Jahan (1658–59), Aurangzeb was victorious less because of his military superiority than because of intrigue, bribery, and deceit. He killed all the other claimants to the throne and put his father under house arrest.

Aurangzeb waged wars to seize Kandahar and Balkh in the north and Ahmadnahar, Bijapur, and Golconda in the Deccan. To pay for these costly wars, Aurangzeb increased taxes and renewed the jizya. Carrying out a policy of Muslim intolerance, he destroyed Hindu temples, confiscated the property of Hindu merchants, and annexed the lands of Hindu feudal lords. This provoked a Maratha uprising throughout the country, led by Sivaji, the Jats, the Rajput princes, and the Sikhs. The disintegration of the empire was accelerated by Aurangzeb’s harsh religious intolerance. At the end of Aurangzeb’s life, his sons rebelled against him. Under Aurangzeb, European trading companies became stronger in India.


Bernier, F. Istoriia poslednikh politicheskikh perevorotov v gosudarstve Velikogo Mogola. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936. (Translated from French.)
Sarkar, J. The History of Aurangzib[2nd-3rd ed.], vols. 1–6. Calcutta, 1924–28.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Of course, the fate of Dara as a historical matter is much more attributable to his political and military misjudgment, having spent seven years thwarting the expansion campaigns of Aurungzeb and ineptly contesting his forces in the final battle for dynastic succession.
(13) In fact, Shah Jahan at this point retired to Agra and conferred authority on Dara, as his brothers Shuja and Aurungzeb began to mobilize their forces.
Aurungzeb had already been convinced for some time that his older brother was an "atheist," and, when his forces overran Dara's army, many of whom were rajput-s, the court conducted the "compulsory" divani-i-khas debate and rendered their condemnation with its mandated punishment.
Later in a press conference here in Islamabad Aurungzeb criticised Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) Chairman Imran Khan and called him a master of 'U-turn'.
ISLAMABAD -- Member of the National Assembly Tahira Aurungzeb has said the government has not imposed a single tax in the budget, which may affect the common man.
ISLAMABAD -- Member of the National Assembly Tahira Aurungzeb Friday said the government had not imposed a single tax in the budget, which might affect the common man.
Samina Mushtaq, Shakeela Khanum, Tasneem Siddiqui, Nuzhat Sadiq, Zubaida Jalal, Nadeem Ahsan, Additional Secretary of Ministry of Education and Director General federal Directorate of Education (FDE) Aurungzeb Rehman were present in the meeting.
Shaheen Khan was replaced by Aurungzeb Rehman, Joint Education Advisor on Nov 12.
Former DG was replaced by Aurungzeb Rehman, Joint Education Advisor who was appointed as an acting DG FDE on Friday by the approval of competent authority.
Joint Education Advisor, Aurungzeb Rehman, UNICEF Chief of Education Bartholomeus Vrolijk, Sheldon Shaffer from UNICEF, UNESCO representative Wallen Mellor and Sight savers representative Niaz Ullah Khan were among the participants of the meeting.