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see OświęcimOświęcim
, Ger. Auschwitz, town (1992 est. pop. 45,100), Małopolskie prov., SE Poland. It is a railway junction and industrial center producing chemicals, leather, and agricultural implements. There are coal deposits in the vicinity.
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, Poland.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a concentration camp built by the fascist German regime on occupied Polish territory near the town whose German name is Auschwitz (Polish name, Oświe̢cim), near Kraków. Construction of the camp, which covered an area of approximately 500 hectares, began in 1940. It was a vast complex for the extermination of human beings, utilizing the most up-to-date technology. During the camp’s existence, more than 4 million people were exterminated—citizens of the USSR, Poland, France, Belgium, Hungary, the Netherlands, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and other countries.

In spite of the savage terror in the camp, a network of underground cells and combat groups was organized by Communists. In the fall of 1944, the central leadership of the organized resistance in the camp made preparations for an armed uprising. Several groups of prisoners went into action spontaneously before the appointed time, however, and the uprising was suppressed. More than 200 people died bearing arms. The Hitlerites dealt savagely with the remaining prisoners. On Jan. 27, 1945, Soviet troops liberated the few remaining survivors of Auschwitz.

A museum has been established at the site of the camp. In September 1958 the International Auschwitz Committee was organized.


Niurnbergskii protsess, vol. 4. Moscow, 1959. Pages 295–557.
Kraus, O., and E. Kulka. Fabrika smerti. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from Czech.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


largest Nazi extermination camp; more than 1,000,000 deaths there. [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 958–959, 970, 1123]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


an industrial town in S Poland; site of a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. Pop.: 45 400 (latest est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In parallel, he documents the growth and evolution of Auschwitz itself from a German concentration camp for Polish political prisoners to an industrialized death factory for the Jews of Europe.
It is one of the most important documents about the Holocaust tragedy.Their life-stories were also published in books: Rudolf Vrba: I Cannot ForgiveI Escaped from Auschwitz and Alfred Wetzler: Escape from Hell.
There will be another trip to Auschwitz in October 2019 and we hope it will be just as successful!
ME-ller-Westernhagen was one of various musicians who gave back their Echo music awards after the two rappers also received a prize at the April 3 Echo ceremony for an album that contained lyrics describing their bodies as "more defined than Auschwitz inmates." In another piece, the duo sing: "Commit another Holocaust, come with a Molotov cocktail."
Throughout the years Polish officials have struggled to battle ( phrases like "Polish death camps" that are sometimes used abroad to refer to the camp in Auschwitz and other death camps that Nazi Germany had built and operated then on occupied Polish territory during World War II.
Prosecutors said Groening -- who did not kill anyone himself while working at Auschwitz -- had helped support the regime responsible for mass murder by sorting bank notes seized from trainloads of arriving Jews.
However, he did express his feelings, writing in the Auschwitz memorial's guest book in Spanish: "Lord, have pity on your people.
Called the "bookkeeper of Auschwitz", he was responsible for collecting money found in prisoners' clothing and luggage.
Groening testified that he guarded prisoners' baggage after they arrived at Auschwitz and collected money stolen from them.
I saw the crematoria," he told the BBC in the 2005 documentary Auschwitz: the Nazis and the "Final Solution".
The pair were found with fragments of hair clippers, spoons, buttons and pieces of glass after they were caught in warehouse number five, where the belongings of the Auschwitz arrivals were seized.
More people died at Auschwitz than any other Nazi concentration camp or any other death camp in history.