Austen Chamberlain


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Chamberlain, Austen

 

(also Joseph A. Chamberlain). Born Oct. 16, 1863, in Birmingham; died Mar. 16, 1937, in London. British state figure. Son of Joseph Chamberlain.

Austen Chamberlain, who was educated at the exclusive Rugby School and at Cambridge University, entered Parliament in 1892. He served as financial secretary to the treasury from 1900 to 1902, postmaster general in 1902, and chancellor of the exchequer from 1903 to 1905 and from 1919 to 1921. He was secretary of state for India from 1915 to 1917, a member of the war cabinet in 1918, minister without portfolio in 1921 and 1922, and foreign secretary from 1924 to 1929.

Chamberlain fought to establish Great Britain as the leading European power. He favored a strong and rearmed Germany, hoping to use it against the USSR and as a counterbalance to France; the signing of the Locarno Treaties of 1925 was a major step toward the realization of this policy. Chamberlain helped initiate the breaking off of diplomatic relations with the USSR in 1927 (relations were resumed in 1929 by the new Labour government) and sought to renew the military intervention in the USSR. He served as first lord of the admiralty in 1931. In his final years, Chamberlain spoke out in Parliament about the aggressive intentions of Germany.

V. G. TRUKHANOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
An industrialist and controversial politician, Chamberlain is one of Birmingham's most historical figures while one son, Neville Chamberlain, was Prime Minister between 1937 and 1940 and his other, Austen Chamberlain, served as Foreign Secretary from 1924 to 1929, and was a Nobel Prize winner in 1926.
Liberal PM Lloyd George was forced to resign along with Tory ally Austen Chamberlain.
Her great-grandfather was Austen Chamberlain, the MP for Birmingham West who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary.
However, London and Cairo did not necessarily agree on the method of achieving British supremacy in the Sudan and, in the aftermath of Stack's assassination, a gulf opened up between the new Foreign Secretary, Austen Chamberlain, and Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, High Commissioner for Egypt and the Sudan, in Cairo.
As it is, he became the first Tory leader since Austen Chamberlain in the 1920s not to serve as prime minister.
The public funding of Britain's universities began in earnest in 1919, when Austen Chamberlain, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, increased the universities' grant by 50% and advised vice-chancellors to increase tuition fees by 25-50%.
The British ambassador wrote that 'happily the bullet only scratched his [Mussolini's] nose' and the Foreign Secretary, Austen Chamberlain, wrote to the dictator: 'My wife joins me in congratulating you on your escape'.
British statesman Austen Chamberlain was honored in 1925 for the Locarno Pact, which "settled" Germany's borders with France, while leaving those with Poland open to revision.
Austen Chamberlain was deeply respected for his probity.
No sympathy for the Rowlands, well-known vicious villains, but within nine hours pounds 600 was collected in Cardiff for Driscoll's appeal and a petition with 250,000 signatures went to the Home Secretary, Austen Chamberlain.
Only one tile impressed with their names on the reverse is known to exist: a portrait of Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, subsequently winner of the 1925 Nobel Peace Prize,executed in a weak grey glaze.