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a nation, the basic population of Austria (ove 95 percent). According to 1966 estimates, about 7 million Austrians live in Austria, and more than 2 million live in Italy (South Tyrol), America (mainly in the USA), and other countries. The literary language is German, with distinctive local dialects, including Viennese. About 90 percent of religious Austrians are Catholics, and the rest are Protestants. The Austrian nation was formed from several Germanic tribes—Alamanni, Bavarians, and Suevi—who mixed with the Slavs and the earlier Romanized Celts, Raetians, and Illyrians. The culture of the Austrians was influenced by Austria’s historic ties with the countries of the Danube Basin and the Apennine Peninsula, as well as by Austria’s membership in Austro-Hungary, a multinational state dominated by the Austrians. About 70 percent of the Austrians live in cities, and the majority of them are engaged in various branches of industry. Most of the rural population is engaged in mountain animal husbandry and farming. The material culture (housing, food, and clothing) of the Austrians in the mountain regions has retained its specific historic features. The Austrians are noted for their diversified folk art, especially in music—songs and dances.
REFERENCENarody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964. (Bibliography.)
N. M. LISTOVA