Automatic Dispatcher

Automatic Dispatcher

 

a complex system in the “man and machine” category of systems that automates a control process on the basis of the most advantageous (optimal) operating modes for the controlled object. An automatic dispatcher collects and processes information on the progress of a process for a closed control cycle, does schedule planning in the optimal mode, and executes the plans—that is, sends out control signals and obtains current information on the execution of the commands sent out, on the condition of the controlled objects, on the data for calculations, etc. In such a system there are an operator (dispatcher), a control computer (CC), communication facilities between all the categories of operators and the CC, telecommunications with the controlled objects, and actuators and control members for the objects. In the narrow sense, an automatic dispatcher is part of a system that includes a CC and communication facilities between the operators and the CC. The control can be effected in accord with a fixed, inflexible curve if the process is stable and unforeseen external effects that disturb the process do not occur in practice. Under these conditions the CC is replaced by a simple unit which can be programmed. However, in the majority of processes deviations from a specified plan are frequent and require continuous correction with the aid of a CC.

Two degrees of control of the operating mode of an automatic dispatcher are recognized. The lesser is an “adviser” mode, where the CC is employed only to process the scheduled plans while an operator (dispatcher) carries them out; the greater is the automatic mode in which the CC, provided with feedback, is employed not only to compile the plans but also to realize them with the necessary control of their execution. In the automatic mode a dispatcher functions like a self-adjusting system, and only in particularly complicated and rare cases is control transferred to an operator. An automatic dispatcher is used, for example, in hydroelectric stations (automatic hydroelectric station operator) and in transportation (automatic railroad dispatcher).

B. A. ZAVIALOV

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