Automatic Power System Control
Automatic Power System Control
several interconnected pieces of control equipment set up at different levels of the energy grid to coordinate operations of separate electric power stations and electrical systems.
Electrical energy development in the 1960’s was characterized by rapid power growth of energy systems and by the creation of very large energy grids. These grids have complex network configurations including dozens of electric power stations operating with different economic characteristics. The organization of the supervisory function in which the control centers coordinate the operation of individual electric power stations and of electrical systems is uneconomical and interferes with the introduction of new, improved optimization methods for electrical systems operation. The proper solution of the optimum control problem is significant in terms of economic effect—for instance, over 30 million rubles could be saved annually by decreasing the usual fuel consumption of the electrical systems in the USSR by only 1 percent. Efforts to create and introduce automatized power system control for energy grids in the USSR (prior to the 1960’s) proceeded in the direction of development of algorithms and of optimum planning and supervisory programs for operations. The significant economic effectiveness of computer technology being used was confirmed by the introduction of these algorithms and programs on digital computers in a number of electrical power systems and grids. In the USA a system for automatic supervision of the California electrical system exists and is functioning; similar systems are being established in France, England, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and a number of other countries.
The optimization of supervision for energy grids is a complex and laborious process. In the final analysis it reduces itself to the solution of numerous variational and nonlinear algebraic equations of complex numbers subject to different boundary conditions, which is feasible only with the utilization of automatized supervisory systems and computer technology. Electronic control equipment is set up at the control points of energy grids and electrical systems and in high-powered electrical power stations, particularly thermal ones, where it interacts with control equipment for the thermal power units and is interconnected by remote control.
The automatized system accomplishes the basic functions of control center supervision: planning long-term and daily operation, giving consideration to actual conditions; operational corrections for conditions in the energy grid and the electrical systems; prevention, recognition, and elimination of emergency and preemergency situations; and solution of financial and accounting problems and of logistics and supply problems. Electrical energy distribution and load allocation among electrical systems is planned by the automatic power systems control center; statistical data and the information received from users about projected electrical demand as well as from electric stations and electrical systems about the condition of equipment, high voltage transmission lines, water reserves in the reservoirs of hydroelectric stations, and equipment repair schedules are used to make the plans. Automatic calculation of charts for daily load distribution among electrical power stations and large units is performed on the basis of a composite plan. During implementation of the daily programs, a condition deviating from optimum can be automatically corrected.
N. V. PAUTIN