Automatic Recording

Recording, Automatic

 

the automatic processing and recording for preservation of quantities that characterize technological processes, the operation of machines, or investigated phenomena. The information being recorded is fixed on a physical medium, which may be, for example, paper, a photographic material, or a ferromagnetic film. Various marking devices are used, depending on the recording medium. Examples of marking devices are pencils, pens, styli, light beams, electron beams, magnetic recording heads, and metallic electrodes. The result of the recording process is usually visible and permanent; ink, for example, is often used. Less common are recording methods in which the recorded results are not visible and must be processed to be read, as in magnetic and some electrical recording processes. Also less common are methods where the results gradually disappear with time, as in processes involving luminescence. All known methods of automatic recording can be subdivided into three classes: recording by applying a layer of a material, recording by removing a layer of a material, and recording by deforming or otherwise changing the state of the recording-medium material (seeRECORDING AND REPRODUCTION OF INFORMATION).

Automatic recording is performed by automatic recording, or self-recording, instruments. Such an instrument consists of the recording medium, the marking device, and a system for moving the medium and marking device. There exist multichannel recorders that use several marking devices and drive mechanisms. Drive units often used include clockwork mechanisms, automatic controllers, servomechanisms, relays, and electric motors (for example, pulse-controlled and synchronous motors). Such units, which are controlled by outside influences, are called actuating transducers. In measuring systems, the recording instruments may be connected with various sensors, measuring instruments, command devices, computing devices, telemetry equipment, remote-control apparatus, and control computers.

The first automatic recorders were based on common monitoring instruments; writing devices that made marks on paper—pencils or pens—were attached to the instruments. For this reason, the term “autographic” has been sometimes applied to such recording instruments. Such recorders are used to record, for example, mechanical shifts and fluctuations, the pressure and flow rate of liquids and gases, temperature, humidity, voltage, and current. The division of recording instruments according to the type of quantity recorded is the basic classification for users who are interested primarily in the purpose of the device. This principle of division is reflected in the common names of recording devices, for example, the vibro-graph, barograph, thermograph, hygrograph, and chronograph. Other classifications used include those based on the structure and operating principle of the recorder, the type of information, and the methods used to process the information. According to the type of energy that is transformed, recording instruments are classified as mechanical, optical, electrical, or magnetic recorders. When recording instruments are classified according to area of use, such types as industrial, laboratory, accounting, navigation, and meteorological recorders are distinguished.

The recorders that automatically record the occurrence of a particular event are the simplest in structure. Such an event may be, for example, the starting or stopping of a machine or the occurrence of an emergency situation. The chronograph is one such instrument. It has actuating transducers of time (a clockwork mechanism or synchronous motor that moves the medium) and the event (for example, a relay element that deflects the pen when a signal arrives) (Figure 1,a). Such instruments are encountered comparatively rarely. The largest group of self-recording instruments consists of devices that record the change in different parameters over time (Figure 1,b) or the change in one parameter as a function of another parameter but not over time (Figure 1,c). The record is made in the form of a continuous curve on flat media by means of point marking devices that have two degrees of freedom of movement relative to the recording medium. Figure 1,d shows the structure of instruments for the simultaneous recording of changes in several parameters over time in the form of different-colored lines or lines labeled with different symbols.

Automatic recording instruments can be subdivided into four groups according to the methods of processing the information: direct-acting instruments, servo systems, scanning systems, and digital systems. The first group includes recording voltmeters, recording ammeters, bifilar oscillographs, cathode-ray oscillographs, and various mechanical devices. The servo systems are used in self-balancing potentiometers, balanced bridges, and electroacoustic recorders. Examples of instruments using scanning systems includes stroboscopic indicating and recording instruments, various graph-plotting devices, and photographic recorders with pulsed value markers (pulse recorders). Digital systems include instruments in which data are recorded in the form of complex-shaped marks or certain combinations of points; printers, some photographic recorders, and digital synthesizers also fall into this group.

The speed of recording is defined as the highest frequency of oscillation that can be recorded for a given recording accuracy. For example, for cathode-ray oscillographs it is about 10 megahertz, for light beam (bifilar) oscillographs about 10 kilo-hertz, for electronic pulsed and digital instruments about 10 hertz, for bridges and potentiometers about 1 hertz, and for electromechanical direct-acting devices about 1 hertz. The accuracy of data recording and reproduction is characterized by the permissible error, which is given in percent of the scale span. Thus, the accuracy is about 10 percent for oscillographs, about 1 percent for electromechanical devices, about 0.1 percent for bridges and potentiometers, and about 0.1 percent for pulsed and digital instruments.

REFERENCE

Temnikov, F. E. Avtomaticheskie registriruiushchie pribory, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1968.

F. E. TEMNIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Summarizing this system will automate the following functions - Automatic recording of fitness during the receipt and storage of E / K in the stowage space,- Universal weighing of containers for export for the safe loading of the ship,- Registration of lorry signboards,- Reception of containers of appropriate combination truck-tractor according maximum weight shown in the marketing authorization, and is registered in the IIS SEMPO database- Optionally, the system will automatically recognize the hazards of the C / S of the posted signs and record this information.
The retroactive saving of songs from Internet radio stations, the targeted automatic recording of a song and the recording of an artist's complete discography combine to make the Audials Radio app for Android with its newly designed recording view such a popular choice for the smart recording of Internet radio stations.
Features that empower nonprofit professionals: Automatic matching of donor information to records in DonorPerfect; For new donors, instant record creation in DonorPerfect from the app; Real-time authorization of payments; Automatic recording of successful payments as gifts in each donor's DonorPerfect record; Acknowledgements can be sent by email instantly after each payment; Process both hand keyed and swiped credit card transactions (encrypted swipe reader available at a nominal cost); Optional signature capture; and, Optional card reader for "swiping" credit cards.
The new PlayOn also offers an upgrade to PlayOn Plus which unlocks the DVR features of recording streaming videos, automatic recording of new shows upon release (called subscriptions), and the ability to record all of the shows in a given series.
The chip system allows automatic recording of race times ensuring accuracy and a more efficient race management.
While employed by the MMB, she oversaw the introduction of the automatic recording of milk litres collected from individual farms throughout South Wales.
The call centre is equipped with an automatic recording feature during the evening to deal with complaints on the clock.
The unit also includes other features like a song information display for quick and easy searching of files, clear voice function and an automatic recording separation function.
During the four summer months (from May to August) 2008 the automatic recording of the global irradiance produced 186 files (534 582 sampled data).
Further, the ICOP 20/20 VISION provides the ability to initiate recording via quick keys, touch screen or button trigger in addition to automatic recording through configurable triggers.
WEB-BASED MONITORING, automatic recording and providing an e-mail trail for every key or asset transaction are assisting apartment owners and managers with security.
Couples in illicit flings are sweating because police are writing to owners of vehicles whose numbers were caught on automatic recording gear.

Full browser ?