autophagy

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Related to Autophagolysosome: Autophagocytosis

autophagy

[′ȯd·ə‚fā·jē]
(cell and molecular biology)
The cellular process of self-digestion.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thereby, mitochondria are degraded by autophagolysosomes [32].
[sup][10] In peri-nucleus of ECs, a high nonhomogeneous density of cellular components was detected and regarded as autophagolysosome. By immunofluorescence double staining, we found the increased expression of MAP1-LC3 in ECs, macrophages, and SMCs in plaques, but no MAP1-LC3 expressed in normal carotid artery.
In aged RPE cells the substrate for autophagy is degraded by lysosomal acid hydrolases, including cathepsins D, B, and L, after autophagolysosome, and Rab7, LAMP-2A, and SNAREs proteins are critical for the fusion of lysosome and autophagosome.
Many of them were packed into autophagolysosomes. The mitochondrial net was fragmented, suggesting increased mitochondrial fission (Figure 6(a)).
Mature autophagosomes then fuse with lysosomes to form autophagolysosomes, where the sequestered cargo is subsequently degraded [101].
First step is the engulfment of cytoplasmic material or entire organelles in autophagosomes which later on fuse with lysosomes to form autophagolysosomes. LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) is localized in autophagosome membrane and is a widely applied marker for autophagy [5].
The accumulation of abundant multilamellar bodies is also in agreement with the macroautophagic response, as these structures originate via autophagy and reflect the accumulation of membrane lamellar material selectively resistant to lysosomal degradation within autophagolysosomes. Lipid droplets, specialized organelles for the deposition and storage of neutral lipids, are associated with common pathologies linked to lipid accumulation and mitochondrial damage.
The outer membrane of autophagosomes eventually fuses with lysosomes to create autophagolysosomes. This stage involves specific ATG8 paralogs; multiple WD repeat domain-containing, phosphoinositide-interacting ATG18 paralogs; ATG2A, which binds to ATG18; the transmembrane protein, ATG9; SNX18 which causes autophagosome tubulation; as well as small G-proteins that direct this process.
These vesicles then combine with lysosomes to form autophagolysosomes that degrade their contents into amino acids, nucleotides, and free fatty acids, which are secreted into the cytoplasm and reused by cells to maintain homeostasis.
As shown by TEM, there were many autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes of pancreatic acinar cells; the content of the swallowed matter was degraded in most autophagosomes; mitochondrial swelling was observed at 3 h in SAP group (Figure 3(a), x15,000); more autophagosomes and
Cells undergoing autophagy display an increase in autophagic vesicles (i.e., autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes).
Iwamaru et al., "The activation of P[2X.sub.7] receptor impairs lysosomal functions and stimulates the release of autophagolysosomes in microglial cells," The Journal of Immunology, vol.