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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the language of the Avars, who live in the Dagestan ASSR, partially in the northern Azerbaijan SSR, and in the Severnaia Ossetia ASSR.

Avar belongs to the Dagestan (or northeastern) group of the Caucasian (Ibero-Caucasian) family of languages. It breaks down into a large number of dialects, local dialects, and local subdialects, which form the southern and northern dialects. The so-called Bolmats (“language of society”), an interdialectal language based on the northern dialect, is the basis of the Avar literary language. In 1959, 270,000 people spoke Avar. It is a second language of the Ando-Bidoi (or Andi-Tsez) nationalities of the Dagestan ASSR.

The structure of the Avar language is characterized by a complex system of consonants, the presence of noun classes, numerous local cases, and an ergative construction. Attempts to write Avar words in Arabic script date to the 15th century, but Avar literature based on the Arabic script gained widespread popularity only in the mid-19th century and early 20th century. In 1927, Arabic was replaced by Latin script and in 1938 by Russian script. After the October Revolution, the Avar literary language began to flourish. The creative contribution of Gamzat Tsadas (1877–1951) and R. Gamzatov (born 1923) exerted a great influence on the development of literary Avar.


Zhirkov, L. I. Grammatika avarskogo iazyka. Moscow, 1924.
Avarsko-russkii slovar’. Compiled by L. I. Zhirkov. Moscow, 1936. (A short Avar grammar is appended.)
Bokarev, A. A. Sintaksis avarskogo iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949.
Saidov, M. S., and Sh. I. Mikailov. Russko-avarskii slovar’. Makhachkala, 1951.
Saidov, M. S. Avarsko-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1967.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Si se tienen en cuenta los resultados del AVAR, se puede observar que en las variables donde no se pudo mantener la igualdad de pesos, es donde se encuentran diferencias estadisticamente significativas (creencias de autoeficacia, metas, percepcion de apoyos sociales, estabilidad emocional y estereotipos de genero).
Address for Correspondence: Pinar Ozge Avar Aydin E-mail: avarozge@hotmail.com
Control of the insurgency by non-Chechen Avars also highlights the move in its center of gravity to Dagestan, where radical Islamist thought is on the rise and violence is rife.
(His father, Anzor, is Chechen; his mother, Zubeidat, is Avar, another of the Muslim peoples of the North Caucasus.) Dzhokhar registered on the Russian-language social-networking site VKontakte, describing his "world view" as "Islam," though his personal priorities remained "career and money." Dzhokhar began visiting Islamic websites, including some with videos of the Syrian civil war and others advocating Chechen independence.
Rasul Gamzatov, a famous poet from Avar village in Tsada in northeast Caucasus, was a treasure-trove of wisdom.
She is an Avar, from one of the dozens of ethnic groups in Dagestan.
MAKHACHKALA, HOME OF ANZHI FC Population: 574,300 Languages: Over 30 are spoken colloquially, including Avar, Lak and Dargin, though Russian is the official language.
S Avar = [[[summation].sub.[epsilon][member of]E] ([K.sub.[epsilon]] - [K.sub.-[epsilon]])/[absolute value of E]] (11)
Besides that, he had also explained on the best time to attack Byzantine and a little about the states surrounding Byzantine such as Burjan, Avar, Bulgar, Slav, Khazar and others (Kennedy, H., 1992; Kennedy, H., 2001).
The empirical bias, standard deviations ("std"), MSEs, and asymptotic variances ("avar") of the estimators of [P.sup.2] are also reported in Table 2.