Averroism


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Averroism

 

a trend in medieval philosophy founded by the 12th-century Arab philosopher ibn-Rushd (Aver-roës). Averroism developed the materialistic tendencies of ibn-Rushd’s interpretation of Aristotle—the idea of the eternity and, consequently, the absence of creation of the world, the mortality of the soul, and the theory of double truth—separating and even opposing knowledge to faith, philosophy to theology. Thus, in Averroism an antitheolog-ical tendency revealed itself—that “joyous free thinking,” which, as Engels put it, came to the Romance peoples from the Arabs and paved the way for the materialism of the 18th century (see his Dialectic of Nature, 1969, p. 7). Averroism was disseminated in Western Europe as a result of the Latin translations of ibn-Rushd’s works; its main representative there was Siger de Brabant, who was criticized by Thomas Aquinas in De unitate intellectus contra Averrois-tas. The persecution of the Averroists by the Catholic Church did not end their influence on European philosophy, as the appearance of the Spanish philosopher Lully in the 13th century demonstrates. In Italy, especially at the University of Padua, Averroism remained an influence until the 16th century. In 1513, Averroism was condemned by the Benevento council.

REFERENCES

Renan, E. Averroes i averroizm. Kiev, 1903. (Translated from French.)
Trakhtenberg, O. Ocherki po istorii zap.-evrop. sr.-vek. filosofii. Moscow, 1957.
Ley, H. Ocherk istorii sr.-vek. materializma. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)
O’Leary, De Lacy E. Arabic Thought and Its Place in History. London, 1939.

S. N. GRIGORIAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
What transpires from De Bellis's reports and interpretations is a confluence of late medieval Aristotelianism, recent Averroism, humanism, and Renaissance Platonism.
(8) Latin Averroism', often still partitioned in the case of the 13th century into the First and Second Averroism, is a much debated label deriving from Ernest Renan which conceals a cluster of images reflective of the complexities of the period that introduces Aristotelian thinking by the aid of the Arabian lens into Christian ambience (see DMA 2004:118-120, Hayoun and Libera 1991).
The essay will conclude with some thoughts concerning the significance of Descartes's "revised Averroism."
Como nos informa Spivakoski (Diego Hurtado de Mendoza and Averroism) siendo el representante de Carlos V en el Concilio de Trento, defendio la tesis de que no era legitimo imponer el bautismo.
In chapter seven (281-82), Cide Hamete's Averroism (the Second Author calls him "filosofo mahometico" in part two, chapter fifty-three) is part and parcel of a "mocking of religion" encompassing three specific moments from part one: the shirttail rosary with which Don Quixote does penance in Sierra Morena; parallels between the oxcart used to transport Don Quixote at the end of part one and a cart used by the Philistines to transport the Ark of the Covenant; and Dulcinea/Aldonza's powerful voice from atop a tower calling her father's workers, which Johnson compares to the muezzin who calls the faithful to prayer from the minaret of a masque.
Among the topics are Plato and Aristotle on the vocation of the philosopher, Maimonides and the imagination, Paduan Averroism reconsidered, Maimonides and Spinoza on good and evil, philosophy and religion in Spinoza and Luzzatto, and Harry A.
It was by such a path that he came quite early to a method of founding his own thought on the universal guarantees of Averroism" [p 156].
I am not an expert in this area and do not read Arabic although I have spent some time in the "Middle East" yet I venture to say that Islamic humanism developed by Ibn Sina who founded Avicennism, and Ibn Rushd who founded Averroism, on the basis of interpretations of Aristotelianism, Neoplatonism, and Neopythagoreanism, introduced a synthesis of Aristotelism and Islamic theology on the unity of God and the immortality of the soul to the Arab world, and then played a role in transmitting both Greek and Hindu philosophy to the Christian West.
That is, prior to the Nominalist critique of Averroism, "natural things were not objects as such....
He had to be careful of course not to appear too close to Averroism. If Giles did indeed intend his work to be a De regno in the manner of the De regno of Aquinas, this would help to explain the absence of discussions of church-state relations in the De regimine.