Averroism

(redirected from Averroist)
Also found in: Dictionary.

Averroism

 

a trend in medieval philosophy founded by the 12th-century Arab philosopher ibn-Rushd (Aver-roës). Averroism developed the materialistic tendencies of ibn-Rushd’s interpretation of Aristotle—the idea of the eternity and, consequently, the absence of creation of the world, the mortality of the soul, and the theory of double truth—separating and even opposing knowledge to faith, philosophy to theology. Thus, in Averroism an antitheolog-ical tendency revealed itself—that “joyous free thinking,” which, as Engels put it, came to the Romance peoples from the Arabs and paved the way for the materialism of the 18th century (see his Dialectic of Nature, 1969, p. 7). Averroism was disseminated in Western Europe as a result of the Latin translations of ibn-Rushd’s works; its main representative there was Siger de Brabant, who was criticized by Thomas Aquinas in De unitate intellectus contra Averrois-tas. The persecution of the Averroists by the Catholic Church did not end their influence on European philosophy, as the appearance of the Spanish philosopher Lully in the 13th century demonstrates. In Italy, especially at the University of Padua, Averroism remained an influence until the 16th century. In 1513, Averroism was condemned by the Benevento council.

REFERENCES

Renan, E. Averroes i averroizm. Kiev, 1903. (Translated from French.)
Trakhtenberg, O. Ocherki po istorii zap.-evrop. sr.-vek. filosofii. Moscow, 1957.
Ley, H. Ocherk istorii sr.-vek. materializma. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)
O’Leary, De Lacy E. Arabic Thought and Its Place in History. London, 1939.

S. N. GRIGORIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
From these premises, Ardizzone justifies the main thrust of her study: that the majority of Cavalcanti's poetry, and, in particular "Donna me prega," can be best understood as the fusion of poetry and radical Averroist philosophy.
And Cantor believes Dante to have been not a Christian but an Averroist.
He examines one of them and Del Medigo's activities as an Averroist philosopher, more specifically his theory of intellect.
Thanks to his reputation as an Averroist philosopher, his choice of a Christian subject matter is curious; (8) it is also curious given his active participation in the factional violence in Florence.
The presence of Sigier here has occasioned much critical speculation, since he was an adversary of Aquinas who publically confuted the Averroist ideas Sigier promoted.
While the problem of conciliating Aristotelian rationality and Christian faith had formed the backbone of the Averroist debates, the so-called theory of double truth, or of duplex veritas, manifests well the intricacies of the concept's formation.
Many Arab intellectuals, such as the late Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri, have been sympathetic to such readings and wished to revive a sort of Averroist Aristotelianism in the name of reason and enlightenment.
2011 Reason and revelation for a Averroist pursuit of convivencia and intercultural dialogue.
Aquinas famously felt compelled to defend the Christian faith against the Averroist interpretation of Aristotle proposed in the 1260s by Siger of Brabant in his treatise De unitate intellectus.
Angel Martinez Casado was the first to situate the movement in what seems to be its most realistic context: radical Aristotelianism, or even Averroist Aristotelianism, directly connected to the twelfth-century translation schools that occupied themselves with Latinizing the Arabic peripatetics.
The concept of "difference" acquired central importance as a result of the critique of Averroist (or Aristotelian) ontology pioneered by fourteenth-century Franciscans (Duns Scotus, Ockham, Autrecourt, et al.).