Averroism

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Averroism

 

a trend in medieval philosophy founded by the 12th-century Arab philosopher ibn-Rushd (Aver-roës). Averroism developed the materialistic tendencies of ibn-Rushd’s interpretation of Aristotle—the idea of the eternity and, consequently, the absence of creation of the world, the mortality of the soul, and the theory of double truth—separating and even opposing knowledge to faith, philosophy to theology. Thus, in Averroism an antitheolog-ical tendency revealed itself—that “joyous free thinking,” which, as Engels put it, came to the Romance peoples from the Arabs and paved the way for the materialism of the 18th century (see his Dialectic of Nature, 1969, p. 7). Averroism was disseminated in Western Europe as a result of the Latin translations of ibn-Rushd’s works; its main representative there was Siger de Brabant, who was criticized by Thomas Aquinas in De unitate intellectus contra Averrois-tas. The persecution of the Averroists by the Catholic Church did not end their influence on European philosophy, as the appearance of the Spanish philosopher Lully in the 13th century demonstrates. In Italy, especially at the University of Padua, Averroism remained an influence until the 16th century. In 1513, Averroism was condemned by the Benevento council.

REFERENCES

Renan, E. Averroes i averroizm. Kiev, 1903. (Translated from French.)
Trakhtenberg, O. Ocherki po istorii zap.-evrop. sr.-vek. filosofii. Moscow, 1957.
Ley, H. Ocherk istorii sr.-vek. materializma. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)
O’Leary, De Lacy E. Arabic Thought and Its Place in History. London, 1939.

S. N. GRIGORIAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
With the condemnation of the deterministic (Averroistic) view of Aristotle, the authority of Aristotle was challenged, thus undermining confidence in his entire system.
The basis of this framework might be viewed as a modern version of the medieval doctrine of double truth -- but a philosophically innocuous one without unpleasant "Averroistic" implications (cf.
In the Averroistic philosophy this saying could be amplified to imply that divine truths are apprehendable by all, without distinction of religious affiliation, and that, ultimately, 'religion and Revelation are nothing but philosophical truths made acceptable to men whose imagination is stronger than their reason' (Etienne Gilson, Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages (New York and London: Scribners, 1939), p.
There are a few references to Doctor Faustus, but not to Faustus's Averroistic lines 'This word "damnation" terrifies not him, | For he confounds hell in Elysium: | His ghost be with the old philosophers!' (Averroes and Pomponazzi are mentioned once.) With regard to Webster Watson excuses himself with the remark that 'obvious examples are not the best ones if the goal is to demonstrate the way annihilationism manifests itself through evasive resistances' (p.
The Averroistic "Double Truth" provides the linguistic and philosophical tools for doing so.
Aquinas, for example, claims that the personal experience of serf-awareness is a good argument against the Averroistic thesis of the separated intellect.
This new model of Averroistic Aristotelism, also known as radical Aristotelism, found its most important followers, among others, in Siger of Brabant and Boethius of Dacia.
For Mazzotta love conditions the movement of thinking in Petrarch's works; the "newness" of the poet's thought is articulated in the following manner: "[...] Petrarch, the poet/humanist who marks the limits of thought in its pursuit of love, brings love and thought into a new relation, which is neither that of the Aristotelians of the Averroistic or Thomistic persuasion, nor is it exclusively that of the stilnovistic poets.
He was trained in a humanist curriculum at the school of San Marco before transferring in his teens to a school of "logic and philosophy" in Rialto, where he was trained in an atmosphere influenced more by an averroistic Aristotelianism than by humanism.
This approach had the effect of an Epicurean or Averroistic View that left the people their common sense and religious beliefs, while allowing the learned to pursue the intricacies of modern thought as it wrestled with the meaning of the world.
The second medieval opinion about Cavalcanti, derived from descriptions of the poet such as those in Boccaccio's Decameron and Franco Sacchetti's Trecentonovelle, is that Guido was a "natural philosopher." The term "natural philosopher," Ardizzone explains, signified someone who applied logical reasoning to the exploration of natural phenomena, like the thinkers in the Averroistic tradition.
MOST ASSESSMENTS OF SIGER OF BRABANT'S CONTRIBUTION to philosophy have tended to focus on his adoption of Averroistic noetics, a position he would later renounce, and on his supposed role as the factious leader of a group of "Latin Averroists" within the Faculty of Arts, an enduring myth finally put to rest by R.-A.