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Related to Avestan: Zoroastrianism


(əvĕs`tən), language belonging to the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. One of the earliest forms of the Iranian languages to survive, Avestan is also the tongue of the Avesta, or scriptures of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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. See Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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See A. V. W. Jackson, An Avestan Grammar in Comparison with Sanskrit (1968).



one of the ancient languages of the Iranic group, in which the Persian religious monument, the Avesta, was written.

Two Avestan dialects are distinguished: a more archaic dialect, Gathic, in which the prayers (Gathas) of the Persian religious reformer Zarathustra (Zoroaster) are written, and the Young Avestan dialect. The oldest portion of the Avesta dates to the first half of the first millenium B.C. Even then Avestan had ceased to be a spoken language, and it reflected the traditional canons of the spoken liturgical literature in its vocabulary, syntax, and style. Later, a complete break occurred between the Avestan language and the living Iranian languages; the Zoroastrian priesthood was the only repository of this dead language, which it used for liturgical purposes, as the Catholic clergy uses Latin. The Parsi Zoroastrians in India use Avestan texts in their religious services to this day.


Sokolov, S. N. Avestiiskii iazyk. Moscow, 1961.
Solokov, S. N. Iazyk Avesty (study guide). Leningrad, 1964
Bartholomae, C. Awestasprache und Altpersisch, vol. 1. Strasbourg, 1896.
Bartholomae, C. Altiranisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1961.
Hoffmann, K. “Altiranisch.” In Iranistik, vol. 1: Abschnitt Linguistik. In Handbuch der Orientalistik, vol. 4, sec. 1. LeydenCologne, 1958.
Humbach, H. Die Gathas des Zarathustra, vols. 1–2. Heidelberg, 1959.
Reichelt, H. Awestisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg, 1909.


References in periodicals archive ?
at the Avestan Digital Archive (http://avesta-archive.
Avestan, Parthian, Scythian, Old Persian, and Median were all Indo-European languages and the mythologies linked to these languages are also Indo-European.
Lommel had this to say about the complex links between the Avestan divinities and their creations.
20) She then goes on to say that "The doctrines of the faith, adumbrated only in the Gathas, are made clear in the tradition, preserved in the surviving Avestan and Pahlavi books.
320 MT lime powder (bulk) ideal content HYDROXIDE Avestan 100%.
Deity Mithra (Avestan: Mi[theta]ra, Pahlavi: Mihr, Latin: Mitras, Sanskrit: Mitra) is one of deities that not just for having his own specific religion in ancient Iran, but because of his influence and position that is the higher place in Zartoshti religious system after Ahoura Mazda, the most veneration is dedicated to him in Avestan texts [19].
h]einus (> Sanskrit dhenu-'milking cow', Avestan daenu-'female animal').
He spoke fluent Persian, Russian, German, Arabic, Pashto, French, Uzbek and Turkish, and had extensive knowledge of Avestan, Pahlavi, Sogdian, and other Iranian languages and dialects, both extinct and current.
Old Avestan syntax and stylistics; with an edition of the texts.
manticorealso spelledmantichora or manticora or mantiger Greek mantichoaras, martichoras, of Iranian origin; akin to Old Persian martiya-man, person, and to Avestan xvar-eat, devour
They are almost never referred to by individual names (though see below) in the Gathas and not at all in the Yasna Haptanhaiti, the other Old Avestan text.
Sanskrit patarah, pataruh 'flying, shooting through the air, Avestan patare-ta- flying (related to Sanskrit patram wing, feather ~ English feather, etc.