Axial Skeleton

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Related to Axial Skeleton: appendicular skeleton

axial skeleton

[′ak·sē·əl ′skel·i·tən]
The bones composing the skull, vertebral column, and associated structures of the vertebrate body.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Axial Skeleton


the section of the skeleton in chordates and man that is located along the longitudinal axis of the body. The axial skeleton provides the principal support for the body and protects the central nervous system.

In acraniates, the axial skeleton is represented by the notochord, whose supportive function is conditioned by the elasticity and the toughness of the outer membranes. In certain craniate vertebrates, the vertebral elements develop from the skeletogenic tissue that surrounds the notochord and the neural tube, with the notochord persisting throughout the organism’s life. The analogous skeletogenic tissue in cyclostomes gives rise to the neural arches of the vertebrae. In certain fishes—holocephalids, Acipenseridae, and dipnoans—the skelatogenic tissue develops into the vertebral centra, as well as into the neural arches.

In most vertebrates and in man, the axial skeleton takes the form of a notochord only in the early stages of embryonic development; the notochord is later supplanted by the developing bodies of the vertebrae. The prolongation of the trunk’s axial skeleton is called the axial cranium, or the neurocranium, or the cerebrocranium, and protects the brain and the organs of olfaction, sight, and hearing.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The axial skeleton alone was involved in 13 (40.6%) patients; 2 (6.25%) had peripheral joint arthritis at disease onset, and rest of the patients had peripheral as well as axial joint involvement (Fig.2).
First, despite the fragmentary nature of both holotypes there are a considerable number of differential characters within the overlapping material (mainly in the axial skeleton and pubis).
Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide.[sup.1] It commonly spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatic vessels, direct invasion to pelvic organs or systemically to the axial skeleton.[sup.3] In an autopsy study, Disibio and colleagues[sup.4] found that the 5 most common metastatic targets for prostate cancer included regional lymph nodes (26.2%), bone (19.7%), distant lymph nodes (18.4%), lung (12.8%), and liver (7.8%).
The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones and is divided into the axial skeleton that includes the skull, hyoid, sternum, ribs and vertebrae and the peripheral skeleton that includes the bones of the limps and the pelvis.
(2) Sclerotic bone lesions in tuberous sclerosis are frequently seen in the axial skeleton especially calvarias and spine, are at times distributed focally and have irregular borders and variable size.
The sacroiliac (SI) joint is actually a pair of special joints located between the lumbar sacral spine and the hip joints, which are critical in weight transfer from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs.
Based on site of origin, eighty two percent of these tumors involved appendicular portion of skeleton and 18% involved axial skeleton. Overall the sites of highest incidence were distal radius and proximal humerus.
After-hour acute trauma radiograph reporting n Population, N 254 Age (years), median (IQR) 30.0 (17.0-44.0) Adults 190 Male 157 Children 64 Examination (radiogaphs), N 369 Appendicular skeleton 253 Axial skeleton 116 Radiographer Experienced 206 Inexperienced 163 Fractures reported, N 86 Skull and face 5 Shoulder 2 Clavicle 3 Upper limb 21 Elbow 4 Hand and wrist 14 Pelvis 2 Hip 3 Lower limb 16 Knee 2 Ankle and foot 10 Spine 2 Chest 2 IQR = interquartile range.
The aim of this present study, therefore, is to investigate the skeletal anatomy of the axial skeleton in the African giant rats thereby advancing the osteological studies of this rodent and to contribute to the information in this field.
Ankylosis of several of the joints causes structural abnormalities of the axial skeleton. Marked ankylosis is seen at the sacro-iliac joints (Fig.
Bony metastases tend to affect the axial skeleton preferentially, and presentation with femoral fracture, such as in this case, is rare.
Composed of appendicular and axial skeleton bones, the pelvis is a transitional body part between the lower extremities and the spine.