axon

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axon:

see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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; synapsesynapse
, junction between various signal-transmitter cells, either between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle or gland. A nerve impulse reaches the synapse through the axon, or transmitting end, of a nerve cell, or neuron.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Axon

 

a neurite, or axis cylinder; the process of a nerve cell along which neural impulses proceed from the cell body to innervated organs and other nerve cells.

Only one axon branches off each neuron, or nerve cell. The nutrition and growth of the axon depends on the neuron body; upon transection of the axon, its peripheral portion dies, but the central portion preserves its viability. Large animals possess axons—for example, those proceeding from the spinal cord to the extremities—that may reach a length of one meter or more when their diameter is several millimicrons (mμ). In some animals—for example, squid and fish—huge axons are found which measure hundreds of mμ in thickness. In axoplasm—that is, the protoplasm of axons—there are extremely thin fibrils, known as neurofibrils, as well as mitochondria and the endoplasmic network. Depending on whether axons are covered with a myelic (fatty) membrane or not, they are known as medullated or nonmedullated nerve fibers. The structure of the membranes and the diameters of the axons that constitute the nerve fiber are the factors that determine the rate of stimulus transmission along the nerve. The terminal sections of the axon, or terminals, branch off and make contact with other nerve, muscle, and gland cells. Stimuli are transmitted through these contact points, which are known as synapses. A nerve is a collection of axons.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

axon

[′ak‚sän]
(neuroscience)
The process or nerve fiber of a neuron that carries the unidirectional nerve impulse away from the cell body. Also known as neuraxon; neurite.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The action potential initiation zone of the PeV1 and PeD7 neurons is in their axons in the vpn.
Clinically and in animal models, it has been shown that axons can regenerate across nerve gaps up to 20 cm that have been bridged by autologous vein (29) and arterial grafts (5).
Newer RGC axons have contact with the axons of older RGC and use these older RGC axons to move along, or possibly fasciculate, with their adjacent axons.
These proteins might play a role not only in the protection and regeneration of axons, but also as additional targets of the immune response; they might also contribute to the progression of the disease process.
Paring away some of the myelin molecules known to strongly inhibit axonal growth, the researchers identified a molecule called reuronal growth regulator 1 or Negri as a potential mediator between axons and myelin, permitting the former's growth.
In his view what Irungu needed was a rehabilitative treatment which includes physiotherapy and occupational therapy to help the axons grow back.
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now devised a new method that radically improves the ability to study axons and thus to better understand the pathological development of ALS.
Axons grow out of neurons and usually travel a long distance to reach their correct targets.
As they snake through the brain, nerve cell tendrils called axons use the brain's stiffness to guide them on their challenging journey, a study of frog nerve cells suggests.