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(īmärä`), Native South Americans inhabiting the Lake Titicaca basin in Peru and Bolivia. The originators of the great culture represented by the ruins of TiahuanacoTiahuanaco
, ancient native ruin, W Bolivia, 34 mi (55 km) S of Lake Titicaca on the Tiahuanaco R. in the S central Andes, near the Peruvian border; also called Tiwanaku or Tiahuanacu.
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 were very likely Aymara speakers. Although subjugated by the IncaInca
, pre-Columbian empire, W South America. The name Inca may specifically refer to the emperor, but is generally used to mean the empire or the people. Extent and Organization of the Empire
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 in the 15th cent. after a long struggle, the Aymara continue to dominate the region, with a population of over 2 million in the mid-1990s. The Aymara languages make up a separate unit; they are spoken in Peru and Bolivia in the Titicaca region. The Aymara, conquered (1538) by Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro, retained their pastoral and agricultural culture. In general, social organization was, and still is, based on the patrilineal family unit. Contemporary Aymara and the related Quechua peasant culture is a blend of aboriginal, Spanish colonial, and modern elements.


See H. Osborne, Indians of the Andes, Aymaras and Quechuas (1952); J. Steward, ed., Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. II (1963); H. and J.-M. Buechler, The Bolivian Aymara (1971); A. L. Kolata, Valley of the Spirits (1996).



an Indian tribe of South America. The majority of the Aymara live around Lake Titicaca and on the Bolivian altiplano in the southern section of the department of Puno (in Peru) and in the departments of La Paz and Oruro (in Bolivia). The Aymara language is spoken by about 1.3 million people (1964). The ancestors of the Aymara were the innovators of the Tiahuanaco culture. After the Spanish Conquest (16th century) the Aymara, despite severe oppression and discrimination, preserved their language and, to a considerable degree, their culture. The traditional structure of the community headed by an elder was retained in a number of areas. Their religion is Catholicism, although there are considerable vestiges of pre-Christian religious beliefs.


Narody Ameriki, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.


References in periodicals archive ?
Sandro explained that polleras worn by Aymara women are colour-coded by age and season - red for springtime and young love, for example.
With the election of Aymara President Evo Morales in 2006, the once-weak indigenous communities of Bolivia suddenly had a strong man to support them.
Individuo y comunidad en la cultura aymara. La Paz: Editorial Juventud.
Los agentes que participan en estas iniciativas son autoridades sanitarias, funcionarios (entre los cuales se identifican antropologa-os sociales), sanadores aymara y representantes de organizaciones aymara (se incluyen aqui profesionales de la salud y de las ciencias sociales).
Kusch's writings, most of which have yet to be translated into English, incorporate quasi-ethnographic fieldwork that he did with Latin American peasants, often farmers, who retained elements of Aymara ethos and worldview even as they had nominally been assimilated into the dominant Spanish or Portuguese language cultures and the Catholic church.
Identity components of young evangelical Christian Aymara women