Also found in: Dictionary.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



language of the Indian tribes known as the Aymara, prevalent mainly in the southern part of the department of Puno, Peru, and in the departments of La Paz and Oruro, Bolivia. It is used concurrently with the official language, Spanish. Approximately 1.3 million people speak Aymara (1964).

Before the colonization of South America by the Spaniards in the 16th century, the Aymara language included more than 40 dialects and was different from its contemporary form. There are few ancient literary monuments in the Aymara language—they are fragments of poetic works, dedicated to the cult of the earth and sun. Missionaries have disseminated translations of the Bible, prayers, and sermons in the Aymara language. In 1900 an academy was founded in La Paz for the study of the language and history of the Aymara, and in 1901 it began to issue a monthly bulletin, which later ceased to appear on a regular basis.


Gómez, B. Catecismo de la lengua aymará del Perú. Lima, 1583.
Apuntes para un catálogo de escritores de lenguas indígenas de América. Mexico, 1860.
Middendorf, E. W. Die Aymara-Sprachen. Leipzig, 1891.
Wissler, C. The American Indian, 3rd ed. New York, 1950.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
If we adopt an Aymaran point of view, however, we can face our literary ancestry head on.
For the first time in Bolivia's 180-year history, most of the ministers are native peoples--including a little-known Aymaran, David Choquehuanca, named as foreign minister.
Mesa stood on a platform in El Alto with Felipe Quispe, considered the most militant of Aymaran nationalists, while thousands of Indians came to look him over, including Nestor's delegation.
We entered the small central square with an Aymaran driver, parked and introduced ourselves to the mayor, Francisco Quispe Ramirez, who seemed friendly and eager to tell the town's story.
A 1993 study based on in-depth interviews with 30 indigenous Aymaran women in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia, found that many of the women had ambivalent, if not negative, feelings about sex.
Many of the women feared modern contraceptives and a number of them anticipated being discriminated against and receiving poor treatment because they were Aymaran. Several said that providers could not be trusted to tell the truth about contraceptive side effects and reported that providers dismissed their concerns about these effects.
In arid northern Chile, Aymaran knowledge of irrigation technology dates back 15,000 years.
There are a few language families that have SwAt-marked temporal clauses for many or all of their members, like Quechuan, Aymaran, Tucanoan, Tupian, Panoan, Tacanan (Antoine Guillaume, p.c.), Barbacoan, Jivaroan.
One prominent leader who already stands in firm opposition to Morales is Aymaran nationalist Felipe Quispe of the Movimiento Indigena Pachakuti (MIP).
Another commonality is the ethnic makeup of Ilave and Ayo Ayo, which both consist of Aymaran indigenous, the most populous native group in the region.
Critics of the lynchings have described them as "distortions" of traditional Aymaran justice, by which a public official considered inept or corrupt may be humiliated by being paraded around on a donkey or by a public whipping.
Modem life in the country's capital melts away to scenes of native Aymarans guiding ox-drawn plows across small plots of unyielding altiplano soil.