Aymara

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Related to Aymaras: Aymará, Aymara ethnic group

Aymara

(īmärä`), Native South Americans inhabiting the Lake Titicaca basin in Peru and Bolivia. The originators of the great culture represented by the ruins of TiahuanacoTiahuanaco
, ancient native ruin, W Bolivia, 34 mi (55 km) S of Lake Titicaca on the Tiahuanaco R. in the S central Andes, near the Peruvian border; also called Tiwanaku or Tiahuanacu.
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 were very likely Aymara speakers. Although subjugated by the IncaInca
, pre-Columbian empire, W South America. The name Inca may specifically refer to the emperor, but is generally used to mean the empire or the people. Extent and Organization of the Empire
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 in the 15th cent. after a long struggle, the Aymara continue to dominate the region, with a population of over 2 million in the mid-1990s. The Aymara languages make up a separate unit; they are spoken in Peru and Bolivia in the Titicaca region. The Aymara, conquered (1538) by Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro, retained their pastoral and agricultural culture. In general, social organization was, and still is, based on the patrilineal family unit. Contemporary Aymara and the related Quechua peasant culture is a blend of aboriginal, Spanish colonial, and modern elements.

Bibliography

See H. Osborne, Indians of the Andes, Aymaras and Quechuas (1952); J. Steward, ed., Handbook of South American Indians, Vol. II (1963); H. and J.-M. Buechler, The Bolivian Aymara (1971); A. L. Kolata, Valley of the Spirits (1996).

Aymara

 

an Indian tribe of South America. The majority of the Aymara live around Lake Titicaca and on the Bolivian altiplano in the southern section of the department of Puno (in Peru) and in the departments of La Paz and Oruro (in Bolivia). The Aymara language is spoken by about 1.3 million people (1964). The ancestors of the Aymara were the innovators of the Tiahuanaco culture. After the Spanish Conquest (16th century) the Aymara, despite severe oppression and discrimination, preserved their language and, to a considerable degree, their culture. The traditional structure of the community headed by an elder was retained in a number of areas. Their religion is Catholicism, although there are considerable vestiges of pre-Christian religious beliefs.

REFERENCE

Narody Ameriki, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

E. V. ZIBERT

References in periodicals archive ?
Sociedades indigenas y conocimiento antropologico: aymaras y atacamenos de los siglos XIX y XX.
En relacion a los trabajos sobre juventud aymara encontramos algunas referencias en Bolivia (Balboa & Altamirano, 1993), mientras que en Chile, en nuestra area de investigacion solo encontramos un trabajo en el que se "discute algunas ideas en torno a la musica sound como dispositivo de produccion de identidad entre los jovenes aymaras del norte grande de Chile, radicado en las ciudades" (Guerrero, 2007, p.
NOVOS CENARIOS DE GENERO ENTRE OS AYMARAS DO NORTE CHILENO
Los datos censales de los tres paises (ver Tabla 1), manifiestan que dentro del area de influencia de Aymaras Sin Fronteras, "la poblacion aliancista alcanza a 179.
Los aymaras y quechuas son mas politizados y asumen su identidad de manera mas rapida.
Desde la feminista aymara Julieta Paredes, Gargallo reconoce que feminista es toda accion organizada por las mujeres indigenas en beneficio de una buena vida para todas las mujeres.
Memoria e historia: El proyecto de una identidad colectiva entre los Aymaras de Chile [Memory and history: The project of a collective identity among the Aymara of Chile].
Years ago, I had the privilege of living among the Aymara people of Peru.
Pese al esfuerzo del catolicismo conquistador por instalar la supremacia del dios vencedor, los pueblos aymaras mantienen sus lugares sagrados, waka 's, achachilaso apus.
Esta presencia tenue de Warista llama aun mas la atencion considerando que Ari hace claras referencias a los casos de las escuelas indigenas autonomas (clandestinas) que impartian su ensenanza en los idiomas quechua y aymara.
Una de estas consecuencias fue la dificultosa relacion desatada entre las poblaciones aymaras residentes en el altiplano tarapaqueno y la nueva administracion estatal asignada al espacio rural andino.
Illimani, Wayna Potosi, Chachakumani, Kunturiri, Illampu constituyen los nombres de los nevados que estan presentes en la mayor parte de las oraciones y letanias aymaras tanto en las waxt'as, mesas ceremoniales, como en las ch'allas (libaciones) e incluso en las consultas a la hoja de coca.