Ayutthaya

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Ayutthaya

Ayutthaya (äyo͞otīˈə), or Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya (prä näkônˈ sē), city, capital of Ayutthaya prov., S central Thailand, on the Chao Phraya River. It is the trade center for a prosperous rice-growing region. Ayutthaya was the capital of a Thai kingdom founded c.1350 and was located on the site of a Khmer settlement. Destroyed by the Burmese in 1559, it was rebuilt by the Siamese in the late 16th cent. but was again devastated by the Burmese in 1767, after which the capital was moved to Thon Buri and then to Bangkok. Ayutthaya has some of the few monuments of early Siamese civilization, notably the royal palace (16th cent.) and numerous temples and pagodas.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ayutthaya

 

(official name, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya), a city in Thailand. Administrative center of the province of Ayutthaya. Located at the confluence of the Pa Sak River and one of the branches of the Menam Chao Phraya River on an island intersected by canals. Population, 36,000 (1965).

Ayutthaya is a shipping station on a railroad main line and on water routes. It is a commercial center for the rice-growing region of the Menam Valley. Ayutthaya has rice polishing, distilling, and fish and vegetable canning enterprises. There are artistic handicrafts (colorful fans and niello) and fishing. In Ayutthaya there are annual traditional boat races.

The city was founded in 1350 as the capital of the state of Ayutthaya, which included most of Thailand and part of modern Burma, Malaysia, and Cambodia. During the 16th and 17th centuries Ayutthaya was the most important center for trade between India and the Far East. Trade declined in the 18th century as a result of competition from the Dutch East India Company. The city was destroyed in 1767 by the Burmese and rebuilt in the 19th century.

The city’s 14th- through 18th-century ruins include foundations of palaces and remains of temple compounds with bell-like stupas (phra chedi) crowned with high spires, tower-like sanctuaries (phra prang) richly decorated with carving, and assembly halls. The temple ruins include Wat Phra Ram, Wat Lokayasudha with a stone statue of a sleeping Buddha, and Wat Radjaphurana (1424), with fragments of paintings.

REFERENCE

The Arts of Thailand. Bloomington, 1960.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ayutthaya

a city in S Thailand, on the Chao Phraya River: capital of the country until 1767; noted for its canals and ruins. Pop.: 61 185 (1990)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The tiny French force had sailed in secret all the way from its base in Cochin China and, on the morning of January 17th, the French ravaged the Thai ships, sinking the Dhonburi, forcing the Ayuthia to run aground, and sinking all three destroyers.
Srisak is an archaeologist and a specialist in pre-history who "has persistently argued for a history of Sukhothai before the Sukhothai kingdom, of Ayuthia before the Ayuthian kingdom, that is to say, the past of the areas which now make up the geo-body of Thailand before they became part of 'proper' Thai history".
(15.) Sujit Wongthes, "Tonthi Krung Siayuuhaya Krung Sukhorhai yang mai tai" [In the Ayuthia period, Sukhothai was not yet dead], SW 1,1 (1979): 8-15.
Became King of Ayuthia (Siam) in 1491; received the first Portuguese envoy to his country, Duarte Fernandez, and signed a treaty with him, granting the Portuguese commercial rights in Siamese ports (1511); from 1520 he was involved in a long war with the smaller Thai kingdom of Chiengmai, and at first he was unable to gain the initiative despite his superior resources; after launching several punitive expeditions, which achieved little, Rama T'ibodi reorganized his military forces, instituting compulsory military service and regional military areas; thus strengthened, he led his army to victory over the Chiengmai forces at the battle of the Mewang River, near Lampang, and drove the Chiengmai from Sukhothai (c.
non-Tai, not subgroups within Tai), new hierarchies of power (with Ayuthia at the top), more complex social organization (many new titles, etc.), and a dominant Theravada Buddhist belief system.
Principal wars: war with Ayuthia (Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya) (1558); war with Bayinnaung of Burma (1564-1575).
Birth date unknown, but he became King of Laos in 1547; he inherited a dispute with the neighboring Tai states of Ayuthia and Chiengmai (Chiang Mai); he invaded Ayuthia, then held by the Burmese monarch Bayinnaung (1558), but his attack was driven off; having thus incurred the enmity of Bayinnaung, Sett'at'irat spent most of the rest of his reign in fighting the Burmese; although the Burmese invaded Laos and swiftly overran the country (1562), the Laotians conducted a determined guerrilla campaign and liberated their country (1563); warfare with the Burmese dragged on past Sett'at'irat's death (1571), continuing until the Burmese at last conquered Laos (1574-1575).
From the beginning of the seventeenth century and long before famous embassies were sent to France in 1684 and 1686,(6) the court of Ayuthia sent a mission to the Netherlands (in 1608), one to Aceh (in 1613),(7) three to Japan (in 1621, 1623 and 1629) and a last one to Manila (in 1636).
The Luang Prasert Chronicle from Ayuthia provides a useful (because rare) example, when it says that Burma declared CS (the era in common use: chulasakarat or sakamat in Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia; thetkaint in Burma) 732 (1370 AD) would not have an extra month, would not be adhikamasa -- "but it was in Ayuthia".