The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a dynasty in the Middle East, founded in Egypt in 1171 by Salah-al-Din (Saladin) after the fall of the Fatimids.

The dynasty is named after Ayyuba ibn-Shadi, father of Salah-al-Din. Different branches of the Ayyubids ruled during the 12th and 13th centuries in Egypt, Syria (Damascus, Halab, now Aleppo, and Homs), Mesopotamia, and South Arabia. The Egyptian Ayyubids were the chief organizers of the struggle with the crusaders. The growth of political and military influence of the Mamelukes and dynastic squabbles weakened the Ayyubids; their main, Egyptian line fell in 1250 as the result of a Mameluke conspiracy.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
These groups were named after the principal regiments provided by the Mamluks for the last Ayyubid sultan Al-Salih whom they served before overthrowing him in 1250; the Bahirya or River Island regiment, based on a river island in the centre of Cairo and the Burgi or Tower regiment.
The El Rizk mosque, built by the famous Ayyubid sultan, Suleiman, will also disappear under the water which will rise to half the height of its minaret.
Further, it was in Ayyubid Cairo that western Jewish Maimonides found "a final haven" (VII:26).
1250-1517), Marmon examines the status and function of eunuchs at the tombs of the Mamluk rulers of Egypt and the origins of eunuch society in Ayyubid times.
Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.
A remarkable figure, Saladin was a talented strategist, administrator, and organizer; while Richard I was his superior as a tactician, even Richard's martial talents could not offset Saladin's careful strategic plans and efficient marshaling of resources; although a devout Muslim, he did not let religious views affect his political perceptions and policies; his dominant personality inspired awe and respect even among Europeans; founded the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt, where his sons and their descendants reigned for many years.
Damascus, SANA- Al-Sroujiya Souq (market) in Damascus was built in the Ayyubid reign, and it is distinguished by its length which reaches up to 500 meters and its arched wooden roof.
The Citadel is a must-see in Cairo's Islamic quarters, a 12th-century bastion built by Ayyubid ruler Salahuddin to protect Egypt against the Crusaders.
There was recent controversy when scholar Youssef Zidan called Ayyubid Sultan Salah El-Din - iconised as the liberator of Jerusalem - despicable, for crimes against humanity that he committed against the Fatimids.
In contrast to pre-Ottoman legal and administrative archival practices, kinship-centered archival practices produced compact collections that have occasionally survived the centuries--elite households had a strong incentive to preserve documents relevant for legal matters, especially those relating to issues of estate ownership, (26) e.g., the third/ninth-century papers of the Banu Abd al-Mun'im in the Fayyum, (27) the papers of the Coptic Banu Bifam in the same region from the Fatimid period, (28) the Ayyubid paper fragments linked to the trader Abu Mufarrij and his son Ibrahim in the "sheikh's house" in Qusayr on the Egyptian Red Sea shore, (29) and the cartulary (jami al-mustanadat) of Mamluk deeds of the Ughulbak family of Aleppo.
Among the topics are a late Ayyubid report of death found at Qusayr al-Qadim, fiscal evidence from the Nessana Papyri, Greek and Arabic in Nessana, hitherto unnoticed Coptic papyrological evidence for early Arabic alchemy, and two new Arabic editions: a land survey from Ihnas and hadiths concerning funerary practice.
On the southern bank is the beautiful Ayyubid cylinder-shaped Zeynel Bey Tomb, decorated with blue-glazed brick and crowned with an onion-shaped dome.