Born July 7, 1924, in the village of Ber-Kot, near Irbil, Iraq. A figure in the Iraqi workers’ and national liberation movement.
The son of a poor peasant, Muhammed attended school in Irbil but soon left to go to work. He has been active in the workers’ and national liberation movement since his youth. He joined the Iraqi Communist Party (ICP) at the end of 1945 and soon became a professional party worker. In October 1948 he was arrested and sentenced to 15 years’ imprisonment and five years’ exile for Communist activity. He was freed after the July revolution of 1958 and actively resumed his work in the ICP. He became a member of the party’s Central Committee in 1958 and of its Politburo in July 1959; since 1964 he has been the first secretary of the Central Committee of the ICP.