Béchamp reduction[bā′shän ri′dək·shən]
a method of converting nitrocompounds to aminocompounds. The reducing agent is iron shavings; the reaction proceeds in an acidic medium (hydrochloric, or sometimes sulfuric or formic acid, is added). The Béchamp reduction is used for the synthesis of intermediate products in the aniline-dye industry (aniline, to-luidine, and so on) in solutions of electrolytes (such as iron salts or NH4Cl). The method was proposed by the French scientist A. Béchamp in 1854.