Bülow, Bernhard Heinrich Martin, Fürst von

Bülow, Bernhard Heinrich Martin, Fürst von

(bĕrn`härt hīn`rĭkh mär`tĭn fŭrst fən bü`lō), 1849–1929, German chancellor. He held many diplomatic posts before he became, through the influence of Friedrich von HolsteinHolstein, Friedrich von
, 1837–1909, German diplomat. After the Congress of Berlin (1878) he became a powerful figure in shaping German foreign policy. His official position was (1878–1906) political counselor in the foreign office, and during his life he was almost
..... Click the link for more information.
, foreign secretary in 1897 and succeeded Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst as chancellor in 1900. He inadvertently increased German isolation by his failure to gain the friendship of England and by his aggressive foreign policy. He antagonized France by his actions in the Moroccan crisis of 1905 (see MoroccoMorocco
, officially Kingdom of Morocco, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 32,726,000), 171,834 sq mi (445,050 sq km), NW Africa. Morocco is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea (N), the Atlantic Ocean (W), Western Sahara (S), and Algeria (S and E).
..... Click the link for more information.
). Bülow later alienated Russia in the Bosnian crisis of 1908 by thwarting Russian goals for the opening of the Dardanelles and supporting Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result he strengthened the Triple Entente between Great Britain, France, and Russia (see Triple Alliance and Triple EntenteTriple Alliance and Triple Entente
, two international combinations of states that dominated the diplomatic history of Western Europe from 1882 until they came into armed conflict in World War I.
..... Click the link for more information.
). Bülow lost the confidence of Emperor William II in the Daily Telegraph affair (Oct., 1908) in which William indiscreetly revealed his foreign policy toward Britain in an interview with the London newspaper; the interview caused a national uproar. Bülow had approved the text of William's remarks, but had not read them. Bülow subsequently lost support in the Reichstag over a proposed tax and was forced to resign in 1909. He later (1914–15) was ambassador to Italy.

Bibliography

See his memoirs (tr. 4 vol., 1931–32).