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British Columbia, province, 366,255 sq mi (948,600 sq km), including 6,976 sq mi (18,068 sq km) of water surface, W Canada.
British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada, is bounded on the E by Alberta, on the S by Montana, Idaho, and Washington, on the W by the Pacific Ocean, on the NW by Alaska, and on the N by Yukon and the Northwest Territories. Along its deeply indented Pacific coast lie many islands, notably Vancouver Island (c.280 mi/450 km long) and the sparsely inhabited Queen Charlotte Islands. The province is almost wholly mountainous, with the Rocky Mts. in the southeast, the Coast Mts. along the Pacific, and the Stikine Mts. in the northwest.
Chief of the many rivers is the Fraser, which, with its tributaries, drains much of central and S British Columbia as it flows to the Pacific. Other rivers in that region include the upper Columbia and the Kootenay. In the north are the Peace, the Stikine, the Nass, and the Skeena. Hydroelectric resources in British Columbia are highly developed; large plants along the rivers operate pulp and paper mills. The station at Kemano on the Nechako River serves one of the biggest aluminum plants in the world, at Kitimat. Long, narrow lakes are found throughout the interior, supplying vast backwaters for dams; Williston Lake, on the Peace River, is the largest of these.
British Columbia attracts millions of visitors annually, and the land is a hunting and fishing paradise. There are four national parks—Glacier, Mt. Revelstoke, Yoho, and Kootenay—and hundreds of provincial parks and camping grounds. The climate along the west coast, tempered by the warm Japan Current, has made that area, especially Vancouver and Victoria, very attractive to tourists.
Large areas of central and N British Columbia are sparsely settled; almost three fourths of the population is crowded into the southwest coastal tip in the Georgia Strait region. Victoria is the capital. The largest city and chief port is Vancouver, which grew rapidly throughout the 1980s, experiencing a real estate boom and heavy immigration from China and Hong Kong. Other population centers include Richmond, Kelowna, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Nanaimo, Kamloops, and Prince George.
Economy and Higher Education
Less than 10% of the province's land can be used for grazing or cultivation, while nearly three fourths is covered with forests. British Columbia's evergreens make up about half of all of Canada's timber. Lumbering and related enterprises (such as pulp and paper manufacturing) are the province's major industries. During the 1990s, however, the provincial tree harvest dropped some 25%, as concerns over clear-cutting and old-growth logging were pressed by environmentalists, tour operators, indigenous peoples, and others. Mining is also important; British Columbia is rich in mineral resources. Copper, mined principally at Kamloops, Princeton, and Brittania, and coal are the province's two largest mineral resources. Also important are natural gas, oil, zinc, gold, silver, nickel, and iron. The mine at Kimberley, one of the world's largest, is known for its silver, lead, and zinc. However, pollution generated by natural-resource industries is a major environmental concern in British Columbia.
British Columbia ranks first among the provinces in fishing; the most important catches are salmon, halibut, and herring. As with logging, however, the effects of overharvesting are now being felt, exacerbated by disputes with the states of Washington and Alaska over salmon catches. Beef is also an important product, especially along the Fraser River, which is known for its sprawling ranches. Other industries include food processing and the manufacture of transportation equipment, machinery, chemicals, furniture, and electrical items. Tourism and outdoor recreation are increasingly important to British Columbia, and Vancouver is a center for Pacific Rim business.
Institutions of higher learning include Simon Fraser Univ., at Burnaby; the Univ. of British Columbia, at Vancouver; and the Univ. of Victoria, at Victoria.
History and Politics
The earliest known inhabitants of the province are indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest (widely known for their totem poles and potlatches); carbon dating has confirmed their occupation of some sites 6,000 to 8,000 years ago, with one site on the coast dated to 14,000 years ago. Juan Peréz was probably the first European to sail (1774) along the coast, but he did not make a landing. In 1778, Capt. James Cook, on his last voyage, explored the coast in his search for the Pacific entrance to the elusive Northwest Passage and claimed the area for Great Britain.
Rival British and Spanish claims for the area were partly resolved by the Nootka Conventions of 1790–92 (see Nootka Sound), which gave both equal trading rights but did not resolve ownership. The British sent George Vancouver to take possession of the land, and in 1792–94 he explored and mapped the coast from Oregon to Alaska. In 1793, Sir Alexander Mackenzie reached the Pacific overland; he was followed early in the 19th cent. by fur traders and explorers of the North West Company who crossed the mountains to establish posts in New Caledonia, as the region was then called.
The Hudson's Bay Company Era
After the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) absorbed the North West Company in 1821, the region became a preserve of the new company. In 1843, Fort Victoria was established by James Douglas as an HBC trading post. Rival British and American claims to the area were settled three years later when the boundary was set at the 49th parallel (see Oregon, state), but further controversy led to the San Juan Boundary Dispute. Partly as protection against American expansion, Vancouver Island was ceded (1849) to Britain by the HBC and became a crown colony.
In 1858 gold was discovered in the sandbars and tributaries of the Fraser River. The gold rushes that resulted brought profound changes. Fort Victoria boomed as a supply base for miners, and a town sprang up around it. Officials of the crown were dispatched to keep order and to supervise government projects and the building of roads. Some 30,000 miners moved into what was then unorganized territory; this led to the creation (1858) of a new colony on the mainland, called British Columbia, and the end of the HBC's supremacy. In 1863 the newly settled territory about the Stikine River was added to British Columbia.
The Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries
The Conservatives and Liberals alternated in power from 1903 (when the national parties were first introduced into local politics) until 1941, when a wartime coalition was formed. The Social Credit party came into power in 1952, under the leadership of W. A. C. Bennett, and retained control until 1972, when the New Democratic party (NDP), led by David Barrett, won a majority. Social Credit regained control in 1975 under Premier William Richards Bennett, who was succeeded in 1986 by William Vander Zalm and in 1991 by Rita Johnston, the province's first woman premier. The NDP took power in late 1991, with Michael Harcourt as premier, succeeded in 1996 by Glen Clark, in 1999 by Dan Miller, and in 2000 by Ujjal Dosanjh (Canada's first nonwhite provincial premier). In 2001, however, the Liberals, led by Gordon Campbell, won a landslide victory; they were returned to power in 2005 and 2009, albeit with narrower majorities. Liberal Christy Clark succeeded the retiring Campbell as premier in 2011. The Liberals remained in power after the 2013 elections, but failed to win a majority in 2017 and Clark lost a confidence vote. John Horgan, heading an NDP minority government, became premier, and remained in office after the NDP won a majority in 2020.
This fastest growing of Canada's provinces increased its national political clout in 1995 when it was given its own veto power over constitutional amendments rather than being subsumed under the western regional vote. By the end of the 1990s, metropolitan Vancouver had become one of the Pacific Rim's most dynamic cities, with a population c.10% Chinese and c.7% Asian Indian. At the same time, land claims by indigenous peoples, claims that could return much of the province to aboriginal ownership, had become a significant political and economic issue in the province. British Columbia, unlike Canada's other provinces, largely did not have signed treaties with most indigenous peoples, despite a 1763 Crown directive requiring such treaties. As a result, the provincial and federal governments began negotiating with the native tribes in the 1990s to sign treaties with them.
British Columbia sends 6 senators and 32 representatives to the national parliament.
See M. A. Ormsby, British Columbia (1958, repr. 1971); J. L. Robinson, ed., British Columbia (1972); M. L. Farley, Atlas of British Columbia (1979); J. King, British Columbia Handbook (1989); B. Christensen, Prince George: Rivers, Railways and Timber (1989).
British Columbia Parks
- Parks and Conservation-Related Organizations - Canada
- Canadian National Parks
a province in western Canada. It includes a number of islands, such as Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Area, 948,700 sq km; population, 2,247,000 (1972). Its capital is Victoria.
British Columbia was discovered by Spanish seafarers at the end of the 18th century. In 1866 it became a British colony. At that time Vancouver Island, which had been a British colony since 1849, became part of British Columbia. In 1871, British Columbia was incorporated into the Dominion of Canada as a province.
The Rocky Mountains (Mount Robson, 3,954 m) lie in eastern British Columbia, and the Coast Mountains (Mount Waddington, 4,042 m), in the west. These two ranges are separated by the Interior Plateaus, which have an elevation of approximately 1,000 m. In the maritime areas the climate is mild and damp; in the mountains it is severe, with temperatures as low as –50°C. Annual precipitation is greater than 2,400 mm (in the intermontane valleys, 300–400 mm). The major rivers are the Fraser, Columbia (its upper course), Liard, and Kootenay. Most of the province is covered by coniferous forests.
British Columbia provides approximately one-half of Canada’s zinc and lead (deposits at Sullivan near Kimberley and at other sites), four-fifths of its molybdenum (Endako), one-third of its copper (Highland Valley and Grenak), and approximately one-half of its lumber. British Columbia also produces one-third of Canada’s output of paper and pulp, with centers at Powell River, Ocean Falls, and Prince Rupert.
Electric power output is 28.3 billion kW-hr; hydroelectric power plants produced 25.1 billion kW-hr of this power in 1971. The plants on the Peace, Columbia, Bridge, and Kootenay rivers have a capacity of 3.5 million kW. Nonferrous metallurgy includes aluminum smelting in Kitimat and the smelting of lead, zinc, and silver, primarily in the city of Trail. Industries include machine building, primarily shipbuilding in Vancouver and Victoria, and the production of logging and mining equipment. British Columbia also has chemical and food-processing industries.
Agriculture is concentrated outside the cities. Dairy livestock are raised, and vegetables and fruit are grown in the valleys of the Lower Fraser, Okanagan, and other rivers. Along the Pacific coast there is fishing (primarily salmon, herring, and halibut), which accounts for one-half of Canada’s yield, and there is a fish-canning industry. The principal ports are Vancouver and Victoria.
L. N. KARPOV