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an artificial obstacle of logs, sandbags, rocks, trees, and other materials at hand piled up across streets, roads, near bridges, on mountain passes, and so on. Barricades were used in the 13th and 14th centuries in the defense of Moscow, Riazan’, Vladimir, and other cities from the Mongol-Tatar hordes, in 1611 during the defense of Moscow from Polish invaders, and in the 17th and 18th centuries during the peasant wars led by Stepan Razin and Emel’ian Pugachev. Barricades were widely used during uprisings of the proletariat in Paris in 1827, 1830,1832, and 1834; in Brussels in 1830; in Lyon in 1834; in Prague and Berlin in 1848; and in Dresden in 1849. During the Paris Commune of 1871 bitter battles were fought on the barricades.
During the 1905 Revolution and the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia the people in revolt used barricades widely in the fight against the tsarist troops. They were built on many streets of Moscow. During the Civil War of 1918–20 and the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, barricades were built during the conduct of combat operations for certain cities.
M. G. ZHDANOV