bass


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bass

(bās), in musical harmony, the part of lowest pitch. The term is used for the lowest-pitched male voicevoice,
sound produced by living beings. The source of the sound in human speaking and singing is the vibration of the vocal cords, which are inside the larynx, and the production of the sounds is called phonation.
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 and for instruments of low pitch, such as bass clarinet, bass drum, bassoon (bass oboe), and bass trombone.

bass

(băs), common name applied to various fishes of Centrarchidae (black basses and sunfishes), Serranidae (sea basses and groupers), Moronidae (temperate basses), and other families. All basses are carnivorous and most are marine, although several species, such as the black basses (see sunfishsunfish,
common name for members of the family Centrachidae, comprising numerous species of spiny-finned, freshwater fishes with deep, laterally flattened bodies found in temperate North America.
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), are found in freshwater. The sea basses are a large, diverse, and important family of perchlike fishes with oblong, rather compressed bodies. They inhabit mainly tropical and subtropical seas throughout the world and are highly valued as game and food fishes. Along the Atlantic coast as far north as Cape Cod is found the common, or black, sea bass, a sluggish bottom fish averaging 6 lb (2.7 kg) in weight and 18 in. (45 cm) in length. Other basses in this family include the 2-ft (60-cm) kelp and sand basses of the Pacific Ocean. The groupersgrouper,
common name for a large carnivorous member of the family Serranidae (sea bass family), abundant in tropical and subtropical seas and highly valued as food fish.
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 are an important subfamily of large tropical sea basses. The temperate basses comprise the white basses, including the striped bass (or rockfish) and the white perch, both found in fresh and brackish waters from Florida to Canada; the white bass of the Mississippi valley and the Great Lakes; and the similar but smaller yellow bass, found in the same range; and the European sea bass, or branzino, and spotted sea bass of the E Atlantic Ocean. The European sea bass is farmed commercially in many Mediterranean nations. The white sea bass of the N Pacific is a member of the family Sciaenidae (see croakercroaker,
member of the abundant and varied family Sciaenidae, carnivorous, spiny-finned fishes including the weakfishes, the drums, and the kingcroakers (or kingfish). The croaker has a compressed, elongated body similar to that of the bass.
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), and the giant sea bass, or Pacific jewfish, a bulky Pacifc bottom fish that reaches a weight of 600 lb (270 kg) and a length of 7 ft (2.1 m) is a member of the family Polyprionidae. The so-called Chilean sea bass, or toothfishtoothfish,
common name for a genus (Dissostichus) of deep-water marine ray-finned fishes found in waters off S South America to Antarctica. The Patagonian toothfish, D. eleginoides, is the northerly of the two species; the Antarctic toothfish, D.
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, of the deep, cold waters of the Southern Hemisphere, is a member of the Nototheniidae family. Basses are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Perciformes.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bass

 

(1) The lowest masculine voice. High or singing bass is distinguished from low or deep bass (Italian, basso profundo). In opera, the comic bass is common. The high bass can be lyric (with a range roughly from G of the great octave to F of the first octave) or dramatic (from F of the great octave to E of the first octave). In Russian choral singing the low bass (from C through E of the great octave to D through E of the first octave) is also called the “central bass.” In choral singing, the bass is divided into first bass singers (whose part is sung by the baritones) and second bass singers (actual bass). In Russian choirs there are also so-called contrabass basses who are capable of reaching notes at the low limit of the human voice (A to B-flat of the contra-octaves).

(2) The lowest part of a many-voiced musical work.

(3) Figured bass (basso continuo).

(4) Musical instruments in a low register, including the bass tuba and double bass, as well as the folk cello in the Ukraine (basolia) and Byelorussia (basetlia).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

bass

[bās (sounds) and bas (fish)]
(acoustics)
Sounds having frequencies at the lower end of the audio range, below about 250 hertz.
(vertebrate zoology)
The common name for a number of fishes assigned to two families, Centrarchidae and Serranidae, in the order Perciformes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

bass

1
1. the lowest adult male voice usually having a range from E a 13th below middle C to D a tone above it
2. a singer with such a voice
3. the bass the lowest part in a piece of harmony
4. the low-frequency component of an electrical audio signal, esp in a record player or tape recorder

bass

2
1. any of various sea perches, esp Morone labrax, a popular game fish with one large spiny dorsal fin separate from a second smaller one
2. another name for the European perch (see perch (sense 1))
3. any of various predatory North American freshwater percoid fishes, such as Micropterus salmoides, (largemouth bass): family Centrarchidae (sunfishes, etc.)

bass

1. another name for bast
2. a bast fibre bag for holding an angler's catch
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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