amino acid

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amino acid

(əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins. They are characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group (NH2) attached to the same carbon at the end of the compound. The 20 amino acids commonly found in animals are alaninealanine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins (see stereochemistry).
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, argininearginine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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, asparagineasparagine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian proteins.
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, aspartic acidaspartic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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, cysteinecysteine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of mammalian protein.
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, glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, glutamineglutamine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein.
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, glycineglycine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Glycine is the only one of these amino acids that is not optically active, i.e., it does not have d- and
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, histidinehistidine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, isoleucineisoleucine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, leucineleucine
, organic compund, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereooisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, lysinelysine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, methioninemethionine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the L-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of the several essential amino acids needed in the diet; the human body cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites.
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, phenylalaninephenylalanine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, prolineproline
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, serineserine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, threoninethreonine
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, tryptophantryptophan
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, tyrosinetyrosine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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, and valinevaline
, organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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. In addition to these 20, scientists have synthesized more than 70 artificial amino acids that are not found in animals, and more than 100 less common amino acids also occur in biological systems, particularly in plants. Every amino acid except glycine can occur as either of two optically active stereoisomers, d or l; the more common isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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 in nature is the l-form. When the carboxyl carbon atom of one amino acid covalently binds to the amino nitrogen atom of another amino acid with the release of a water molecule, a peptidepeptide,
organic compound composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. The peptide bond always involves a single covalent link between the α-carboxyl (oxygen-bearing carbon) of one amino acid and the amino nitrogen of a second amino acid.
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 bond is formed. Amino acids are released in the intestinal tract by the digestion of food proteins and are then carried in the bloodstream to the body cells, where they are used for growth, maintenance, and repair. Cellular catabolism breaks amino acids down into smaller fragments. Many of the amino acids necessary in metabolism can be synthesized in the human or animal body when needed; these are called nonessential. Others cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities; these are termed essential and must be provided in the diet. Synthetic amino acids have been used by scientists as markers to track biological processes and as components of disease treatments; artificial amino acids can in some cases increase the effectivenesss of treatments by slowing the normal breakdown of the hormone or other biologic into which they are incorporated.

amino acid

[ə′mē‚nō ′as·əd]
(biochemistry)
Any of the organic compounds that contain one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups and that are polymerized to form peptides and proteins; only 20 of the more than 80 amino acids found in nature serve as building blocks for proteins; examples are tyrosine and lysine.

amino acid

any of a group of organic compounds containing one or more amino groups, -NH2, and one or more carboxyl groups, -COOH. The alpha-amino acids RCH(NH2)COOH (where R is either hydrogen or an organic group) are the component molecules of proteins; some can be synthesized in the body (nonessential amino acids) and others cannot and are thus essential components of the diet (essential amino acids)
References in periodicals archive ?
Os suplementos mais utilizados foram BCAA e Whey Protein, justificando os objetivos para o uso do suplemento que foram hipertrofia muscular e melhora de performance.
Plasma BCAA concentration was measured enzymatically (Biovision, Milpitas, CA, USA) with a microplate spectrophotometer (Benchmark Plus, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).
The underlying mechanisms for the adverse effects of BCAA catabolic defects on the heart remain to be established.
The lowest cost to get the equivalent of 5 grams of high-quality creatine monohydrate from a supplement was 9 cents, and for 5 grams of BCAAs it was 31 cents, while the cost was well over $1 to get these same ingredients from some other products.
In another study, seven cirrhotic patients (age: 70 [+ or -] > 6 years; M/F = 4/3; etiology: hepatitis C in six and non-B/non-C hepatitis virus in one; Child-Pugh classification: A in six and B in one) were given 4 g BCAA after each meal for 8 weeks 14].
Studies in rats that were administered the BCAA leucine to their central nervous systems showed increases of mTOR signaling in a region of the brain known as the hypothalamus, which was in turn associated with decreased food intake.
In their paper, the scientists wrote: "We have provided evidence that an original BCAA mixture increases average life span in male mice.
BCAA nutritional supplements are readily available in health food stores and online.
The integrity of the radio coverage is constantly checked by a radio-link test system and the 'signal coding' within the system protects against eavesdropping," said Captain AbdulRahman Al Gaoud, undersecretary at the BCAA (NOTE--SPELLING IS CORRECT).
Building on the already close relationships and complementary growth that the Gulf region's states have adopted towards taking an increasingly global role in the aviation business, the MoU represents that spirit of co-operation and knowledge-sharing that will underpin any future success for the region's aviation industry, BCAA said in a statement.
Key performance-enhancing dements include branched-chain amino adds, glycerol, ultra-high bioavailable whey protein, beta alanine, sodium and calcium phosphates, and such neuro focus agents as choline, taurine and BCAA.
A sufficient caloric intake is crucial to limit the utilization of BCAA in gluconeogenesis which leads to muscle wasting.