bison


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Idioms, Wikipedia.

bison,

large hoofed mammal, genus Bison, of the cattlecattle,
name for the ruminant mammals of the genus Bos, and particularly those of the domesticated species, Bos taurus and B. indica. The term oxen, broadly used, refers also to closely related animals, such as the buffalo and the bison.
..... Click the link for more information.
 family. Bison have short horns and humped, heavily mantled shoulders that slope downward to the hindquarters. The European bison, or wisentwisent
, name for the European bison, Bison bonasus. It is a close relative of the American bison, B. bison. Longer legged and less heavily built than its American cousin, the wisent may reach a height of 54 to 60 in.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Bison bonasus, has a less luxuriant mane and beard than the American species, B. bison.

The American bison is commonly called buffalo, but true buffalobuffalo,
name commonly applied to the American bison but correctly restricted to certain related African and Asian mammals of the cattle family. The water buffalo, or Indian buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, is found in S Asia.
..... Click the link for more information.
 are African and Asian animals of the same family. B. bison is characterized by a huge, low-slung head and massive hump; its legs are shorter than those of the wisent. Males may reach a shoulder height of over 5 ft (1.5 m), a body length of 9 ft (2.7 m), and a weight of 2,500 lb (1,130 kg). The winter coat of the American bison is dark brown and shaggy; it is shed in spring and replaced by a coat of short, light-brown fur. Bison graze on prairie grasses, migrating south in search of food in the winter.

They formerly were found over much of North America, especially on the Great Plains, and were hunted by Native Americans for their flesh and hides. During the 19th cent. they were subjected to a wholesale slaughter that resulted in their near extinction. They were killed for their tongues, regarded as a delicacy, and shot for sport from trains. Estimates of the number of bison in North America, at their peak, range from 24 million to 60 million. By the middle of the 19th cent. the bison was extinct E of the Mississippi, and by 1900 there remained only two wild herds in North America, one of plains bison in Yellowstone Park, and one of the larger variety, called wood bison, in Canada. Protective laws were passed beginning at the end of the last century, and the bison population has since risen from a few hundred to many thousands, although most bison not on federal lands have been hybridized to some degree with domestic cattle. The wood bison may have vanished as a distinct race through hybridization with the plains bison. The American bison was made the national of the United States by an act of Congress in 2016.

Bison are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
..... Click the link for more information.
, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae.

Bibliography

See T. McHugh and V. Hobson, The Time of the Buffalo (1972); J. N. Mcdonald, North American Bison (1981); V. Geist, Buffalo Nation (1996).

bison

[′bīs·ən]
(vertebrate zoology)
The common name for two species of the family Bovidae in the order Artiodactyla; the wisent or European bison (Bison bonasus), and the American species (Bison bison).

bison

1. a member of the cattle tribe, Bison bison, formerly widely distributed over the prairies of W North America but now confined to reserves and parks, with a massive head, shaggy forequarters, and a humped back
2. a closely related and similar animal, Bison bonasus, formerly widespread in Europe

Bison

(tool)
GNU's replacement for the yacc parser generator. Bison runs under Unix and on Atari computers. It was written by Robert Corbett.

Latest version: 1.28, as of 2000-05-22.

As of version 1.24, Bison will no longer apply the GNU General Public License to your code. You can use the output files without restriction.

FTP GNU.org or your nearest GNU archive site.

E-mail: <bug-bison@gnu.org>.

Bison++ is a version which produces C++ output.

bison

The Free Software Foundation's version of yacc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Re-Bisoning the West relates the story of the American bison, demonstrating the complex relationships the species maintains with the earth and humanity itself.
Others followed, and by 2009, the bison had stopped going back to House Rock Valley.
In 1905, Teddy Roosevelt co-founded the American Bison Society, and, with the New York City Zoo (now the Bronx Zoo), efforts began to save them.
Bison has 1,500 employees, 17 yards, 300 transport trucks, 25 commercial disposal facilities and an integrated network of water gathering infrastructure.
A The European bison is one of the symbols of nature conservation in Europe.
The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Azerbaijan, IDEA Public Association and WWF representative office in the country, on the initiative of Leyla Aliyeva, the Vice-President of the Heydar Aliyev Foundationand founder and head of IDEA, are currently implementing a joint project to reintroduce bison into their historical habitats.
Thousands of Native Americans joined in celebrations of the birth of a white bison female in the US state of Wisconsin in 1994.
The European bison eat 28 tonnes of the pellets a year and 20 tonnes of hay during winter.The breeding programme for the bison requires new investments every year.
The compact footprint makes the EvoQuip Bison 280 easy to transport and also makes it an ideal machine for working in urban areas.
Our first objective of this study was to test predictions of the competitive release hypothesis that the presence of large grazers (bison) on tallgrass prairie reduces canopy density, increases available light, and increases the growth, reproduction, and cover of forb species.
Prior to these transactions, Bison owned an aggregate of 13,113,800 common shares or approximately 8.7% of the issued and outstanding common shares (on a non-diluted basis).
" While bison were unarguably slaughtered by hunters, it could not account for the crash of an entire population.