Bharatiya Janata party

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Bharatiya Janata party

(bär`ətēə jän`ətə) [Hindi,=Indian People's party] (BJP), Indian political party that espouses Hindu nationalism. The BJP draws its Hindu nationalist creed from the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS; National Self-Service Organization), a group founded in 1925 in opposition to Mohandas GandhiGandhi, Mohandas Karamchand
, 1869–1948, Indian political and spiritual leader, b. Porbandar. In South Africa

Educated in India and in London, he was admitted to the English bar in 1889 and practiced law unsuccessfully in India for two years.
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 and dedicated to the propagation of orthodox Hindu religious practices.

The BJP's direct political antecedent is the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a party established in 1951 that stood in staunch opposition to what it perceived as the evils of Western cultural imperialism. Its principles were retained when the party became the BJP in 1980. Opposed to the secular democracy advocated by the long-ruling Congress party (see Indian National CongressIndian National Congress,
Indian political party, founded in 1885. Its founding members proposed economic reforms and wanted a larger role in the making of British policy for India.
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), the BJP objected to the separate code of civil laws for India's Muslims, supported India's nuclear defense capability, and favored restrictions on foreign investment.

At first largely a northern party popular in Hindi-speaking areas among urban middle-class traders, by 1989 the BJP had won 85 seats in parliament. In the 1990s the party became part of the mainstream political life of India. It scored a major success in the 1996 general elections, winning the most parliamentary seats (161 of 545) but falling short of a majority. Shortly thereafter, the BJP formed a government, with its leader, Atal Bihari VajpayeeVajpayee, Atal Bihari
, 1926–, Indian politician, prime minister of India (1996, 1998–2004). He began his career as a journalist, entering politics as an unsuccessful parliamentary candidate in 1950.
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, as prime minister, but it fell prior to a confidence vote. The BJP again garnered the largest number of parliamentary seats in the 1998 and 1999 elections and successfully formed governments, again with Vajpayee as prime minister. In power, the BJP tended to avoid many of the Hindu nationalist issues originally central to it, and promoted economic reforms and development, including foreign investment.

Although the BJP moved to distance itself somewhat from the RSS and attract Muslim voters, party members were accused of complicity in the violence that killed perhaps as many as 2,500 in Gujarat in Feb.–Mar., 2002, and a BJP lawmaker in the state was convicted of murder in 2012. The BJP lost the 2004 elections to the Congress party coalition, and suffered additional losses in the 2009 elections. In 2014, however, the party won a majority, and Narendra ModiModi, Narendra Damodardas
, 1950–, Indian politician. A member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a right-wing, paramilitary Hindu nationalist group and then, from 1987, the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata party (BJP), he rose to prominence in his native Gujarat,
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 became prime minister. Subsequently, RSS members played a more significant role in the leadership of the BJP.

References in periodicals archive ?
Shiv Sena, a key ally of the BJP, too took a swipe at the BJP for invoking Pakistan to win elections in Bihar.
The RJD president said that the BJP had been cheating different castes by creating confusion about its probable chief ministerial candidate.
This contention is wrong that the BJP is a communal party," Arora said.
He also stressed that P will not sit quietly and will take every possible step to stop horse-trading done by the BJP.
The BJP is aware that without weakening the political base of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) led by Mayawati, a popular Dalit leader, it may not be possible for it to make significant gains in UP.
We have appealed to recognise KJP legislators as BJP legislators and provide them seats in the House along with BJP group," the Deccan Herald quoted Yeddyurappa.
According to the latest reports, Bihar BJP chief Mangal Pandey and senior party leader Ravi Shankar Prasad were also arrested during the protest.
Officially, however, the BJP said it would continue with its protests in both the Houses of Parliament.
In 2003, using tax money, the BJP blitzed the media with its multimillion-dollar "India Shining" ad campaign in preparation for the Parliamentary elections.
The Congress Party fared badly in areas with a predominantly tribal population, where the leading BJP candidate Dilip Singh Judeo campaigned strongly against conversions.
She responded that the BJP "government is leading India well, and it will do the right thing.
The BJP also has a history of religious extremism; an editorial in the Japan Times in 1999 declared that the BJP's increased political popularity in the 1990s was "achieved on the back of an anti-Muslim campaign, tapping into the backlash against appeasement of Muslims by Congress governments.