Baal


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Baal

(bā`əl), plural

Baalim

(bā`əlĭm) [Semitic,=master, lord], name used throughout the Bible for the chief deity or for deities of Canaan. The term was originally an epithet applied to the storm god HadadHadad
or Adad
, ancient weather god of Semitic origin, worshiped in Babylonia and Assyria. Important throughout the Middle East, he was worshiped under many names.
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. Technically, Baal was subordinate to El, the supreme god, the creator, and the father of Hadad and other gods.

Baal is attested in the Ebla texts (first half of 2d millennium B.C.), and by the time of the UgaritUgarit
, ancient city, capital of the Ugarit kingdom, W Syria, on the Mediterranean coast N of modern Latakia. Although the name of this city was known from Egyptian and Hittite sources, its location and history were a mystery until the accidental discovery (1928) of an ancient
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 tablets (14th cent. B.C.), he had become the ruler of the universe. The Ugarit tablets make him chief of the Canaanite pantheon. He is the source of life and fertility, the mightiest hero, the lord of war, and the defeater of the god Yam. There were many temples of Baal in Canaan, and the name Baal was often added to that of a locality, e.g., Baal-peor, Baal-hazor, Baal-hermon.

The Baal cult penetrated Israel and at times led to syncretism. In the Psalms, Yahweh is depicted as Baal and his dwelling is on Mt. Zaphon (Zion), the locale of Baal in Canaanite mythology. The practice of sacred prostitution seems to have been associated with the worship of Baal in Palestine and the cult was vehemently denounced by the prophets, especially HoseaHosea
, prophetic book of the Bible. It relates something of the career of the prophet Hosea who preached against the sins of the northern kingdom of Israel in the third quarter of the 8th cent. B.C.
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 and JeremiahJeremiah
a book of the Bible, comprising a collection of prophetic oracles attributed to Jeremiah, a prophet who preached (c.628–586 B.C.) in Jerusalem under King Josiah and his successors. His message indicts his contemporaries for social injustice and religious apostasy.
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. The abhorrence in which the cult was held probably explains the substitution of Ish-bosheth for Esh-baal, of Jerubbesheth for Jerubbaal (a name of Gideon), and of Mephibosheth for Merib-baal. The substituted term probably means "shame." The same abhorrence is evident the use of the pejorative name Baal-zebubBaal-zebub
[Heb.,=lord of flies], a deliberate Hebrew distortion of the name of the god of Ekron in 2 Kings. In the Gospels of Mark and Luke, Beelzebul, the Greek form of the epithet Baal-zebul [Baal the Prince], is encountered. See Baal and Satan.
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 (see also SatanSatan
[Heb.,=adversary], traditional opponent of God and humanity in Judaism and Christianity. In Scripture and literature the role of the opponent is given many names, such as Apolyon, Beelzebub, Semihazah, Azazel, Belial, and Sammael.
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).

As cognates of Baal in other Semitic languages there are Bel (in Babylonian religion) and the last elements in the Tyrian names Jezebel, Hasdrubal, and Hannibal. The Baal of 1 Chronicles is probably the same as RamahRamah
, in the Bible. 1 Town, NE ancient Palestine, allotted to Naphtali. 2 Town of Asher. 3 Unidentified town of Simeon, called Ramah of the south.
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 (3.)

Baal

chief male god of Phoenicians; the generative principle. [Phoenician Rel.: Parrinder, 38]
References in periodicals archive ?
Others have publicly and proudly embraced their self-identified baal teshuvah status.
The main thesis that the conflict between Baal and YHWH veneration should be regarded as a rather limited phenomenon, mainly restricted to the ninth century B.
It was believed that human pairs, by imitating the action of Baal and his partner, could bring the divine pair together in fertilizing union.
Little Baal Veer, as he's named, absorbs the powers of the six angels in Pari Lok who bring him up - Aarpaar pari,Gaal Pari,Baal pari, Natkhat Pari Vijdhaar pari, Atakti pari, Bhatakti pari, all of whom defer to Rani Pari, the fairy who wields the combined powers of all the fairies in Pari Lok.
Xstrata Coal has been using the Baal Bone mine in the Western Coalfields, about 26 km northwest of Lithgow in New South Wales, as its regional training center, where new recruits will spend 12 weeks learning mining skills.
As previously announced, mining operations commenced at Baal Gammon in late September, whilst trucking of ore to Kagara's Mt Garnet processing facility commenced on 28 November 2011.
The purpose of this article is to consider factors that relate to the question of how and why Bertolt Brecht's Baal (1918) can be read as a contemporary queer experience.
The Circle of the Baal Shem Tov: Studies in Hasidism, by Abraham Joshua Heschel, edited by Samuel H.
According to the Old Testament, she was a cruel, immoral queen who encouraged the worship of her god, Baal, and tried to kill Elijah and other prophets of Israel in the 9th century BC.
Dirigida en Morelia, Michoacan, por Roberto Briceno, Baal de Bertolt Brecht desata ecos expresionistas del autor y su tiempo.
There hasn't been much sniper activity in West Cork since a certain attack at BAal na mBlcth on August 22, 1922, when Senator McCarthy's third cousin Michael Collins was assassinated.
He makes a radical statement of faith that the Lord God of Israel is God, more powerful than Baal, the Canaanite God of rain.