(3) Gracchus Babeuf
, Du systeme de depopulation ou la vie et les crimes de Carrier , as reproduced in Reynald Secher and Jean- Joel Bregeon (eds), La Guerre de la Vendee et le systeme de depopulation (Paris: Editions Tallandier, 1987), 77-188.
Ya en el Manifiesto Comunista aparecia una critica dura a Babeuf
por ensenar un ascetismo general y un crudo nivelamiento.
One sobering legacy of the Revolution and the Vendean War it instigated is described by The Black Book of Communism, a 1998 study compiled by a group of French academics: "Lenin compared the Cossacks to the Vendee during the French Revolution and gladly subjected them to a program of what Gracchus Babeuf
, the 'inventor' of modern Communism, characterized in 1795 as 'populicide.'"
After an account of Babeuf
's attempt to "overturn the Directorate and reinstate revolutionary dictatorship [in order to] found an egalitarian and collectivist society," Baczko contrasts some of the utopia ideas of Babeuf
and Condorcet to the emergence of authoritarianism under Bonaparte.
Other 'plots' follow, leading to Babeuf
's view of the Terror as a scheme to depopulate France and grab the remaining wealth.
A la suite de la tournee de Freron, la conjuration de Babeuf
a ebranle le Directoire.
Even some seemingly dogmatic statements have since been justified: Lukacs's association of Buchner with Babeuf
is supported by documents recently unearthed by Thomas Michael Mayer, while the description of Heine as a Young Hegelian has been confirmed by Nigel Reeves.
There was a tending towards such direct democracy through the whole modern democratic process, which was already evident in the political designs of the Peasant War of 1524-25; then again in the English Revolution with Winstanley in particular; in the French Revolution through the Constitution of '93, in the revolutionary sections of Paris City Council, in the Babeuf
movement; throughout the French utopian stream of the 1800's from Fourier to Proudhon; in the Paris Commune in 1871; in the Soviet Revolution of February 1917, the real start of the Russian Revolution; in the student revolts of the Sixties and Seventies; and finally in the political design of perestroika.
It is the unwillingness of certain individuals, for example Babeuf
, Christ, Copernicus, and Tolstoy, to conform to the existing order or consensus, not for any specific reason, but simply because it is the existing order or consensus.
Tra i titoli di questa serie compare, a cura di un anonimo protetto dalla sigla XY, anche La congiura per l'uguaglianza detta di Babeuf
, di Filippo Buonarroti, un testo additato piu volte come incunabolo del comunismo, (4) ma pubblicato in Italia soltanto nel 1946 in una traduzione per l'Einaudi di Gastone Manacorda.
The former, embraced by Akel, is represented by Babeuf
, Marx, Lenin, Stalin, Mao, Castro and Kim Jong-un while the latter is based on the "social democratic compromise" supported by the social democrats in the EU.