Talmud

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Talmud

(tăl`məd) [Aramaic from Heb.,=learning], in Judaism, vast compilation of the Oral Law with rabbinical elucidations, elaborations, and commentaries, in contradistinction to the Scriptures or Written Laws. The Talmud is the accepted authority for Orthodox Jews everywhere. Its two divisions are the MishnaMishna
, in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the Talmud.
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 or text of the Oral Law (in Hebrew) and the Gemara (in Aramaic), a commentary on the Mishna, which it supplements. The Mishna is divided into six Orders (Sedarim) and comprises 63 tractates (Massektoth), only 36 1-2 of which have a Gemara. The redaction of the Mishna was completed under the auspices of Juda ha-Nasi, c.A.D. 200, who collected and codified the legal material that had accumulated through the exposition of the Law by the Scribes (Soferim), particularly Hillel and Shammai, and its elaboration by the TannaimTannaim
[plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from Hillel to the compilation of the Mishna. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies.
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 of the 1st and 2d cent. A.D., particularly Akiba ben Joseph. The Gemara developed out of the interpretations of the Mishna by the AmoraimAmoraim
[Heb. amar=to interpret], in Judaism, term referring to those scholars, predominantly at Caesarea and Tiberias in Palestine (c.A.D. 220–c.A.D. 375) and in Babylonia (c.A.D. 200–c.A.D.
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. Both the Palestinian and Babylonian schools produced Talmuds, known respectively as the Talmud Yerushalmi (compiled c.5th cent. A.D.) and the Talmud Babli (c.6th cent. A.D.). The Babylonian Talmud is longer and more comprehensive and sophisticated than the Talmud Yerushalmi. It became the authoritative work due in part to the predominance of Babylonian Jewry and the decline of the Palestinian community by the year 1000. The Talmud touches on a wide range of subjects, offering information and comment on astronomy, geography, historical lore, domestic relations, and folklore. The legal sections of the Talmud are known as the halakahhalakah
or halacha
[Heb.,=law], in Judaism, the body of law regulating all aspects of life, including religious ritual, familial and personal status, civil relations, criminal law, and relations with non-Jews.
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; the poetical digressions, illustrating the application of religious and ethical principles through parables, legends, allegories, tales, and anecdotes, constitute the Aggada. In the Middle Ages there arose a vast literature of commentaries on the Gemara—commentaries on those commentaries—and responsa (questions and answers); Rashi was one of the best-known commentators, and his commentaries are included in standard editions of the Talmud. In the Middle Ages thousands of Talmud manuscripts were destroyed by the Christians. The term Talmud is sometimes used to refer to the Gemara alone.

Bibliography

See The Babylonian Talmud (34 vol., tr. 1935–48); J. Goldin, The Living Talmud (1957, repr. 1964); H. L. Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (1931, repr. 1969); C. G. Montefiore and H. Loewe, ed., A Rabbinic Anthology (1970); J. Neuser, Invitation to the Talmud (1973, repr. 1984); A. Steinsaltz, ed., The Talmud (Vol. I–XX, 1989–99) and The Essential Talmud (1992); D. H. Akenson, Surpassing Wonder: The Invention of the Bible and the Talmuds (1999).

Talmud

 

a collection of dogmatic religious, ethical, and legal tenets of Judaism. Compiled between the fourth century B.C. and the fifth century A.D., it is written partly in Hebrew and partly in Aramaic dialects.

The Talmud comprises precepts on morality and law, discourses on religious doctrine and practices, legends about the universe, and prescientific information on medicine, astronomy, and geography. The oldest part of the Talmud, the Mishnah (“repetition”), interprets the laws of the Pentateuch, which at the time of writing no longer conformed to changing social conditions. The Mishnah also includes interpretations of the Torah that were compiled toward the early third century A.D. and which Orthodox Jews are required to adhere to. Later, the Mishnah itself became a subject of interpretation among Judaic theologians. The body of interpretations revolving around the Mishnah—the Gemara (“completion”)—together with the Mishnah itself, comprises the Talmud.

The part of the Talmud containing the laws that regulate the religious, family, and civic life of the Jews is called the halakah; the nonlegal part, containing myths, legends, parables, tales, and short stories, is called the Haggadah. The Haggadah is based on Middle Eastern folklore. In actuality there are two Talmuds, the Palestinian and Babylonian, named according to the place where the Gemara were compiled.

The Talmud views man as dependent on god, and the social order as inalterable. It advises patience and advocates intolerance toward adherents of other faiths.

Talmud

great body of Jewish law and tradition, supplementing scripture. [Judaism: Haydn & Fuller, 725]

Talmud

Jewish civil and religious law, including the Mishna. [Judaism: Payton, 661]

Talmud

Judaism
1. the primary source of Jewish religious law, consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara
2. either of two recensions of this compilation, the Palestinian Talmud of about 375 ad, or the longer and more important Babylonian Talmud of about 500 ad
http://www.oru.edu/university/library/guides/talmud.html
http://www.aishdas.org/webshas/
References in periodicals archive ?
On the tripartite structure of sugyot in the Babylonian Talmud we have already seen, for example, a discussion on the three-fold sugyot in Tractate Yebamot, in the tenth chapter, and also in tractate Bava Metzi'a, first and second chapter (Friedman 1977, 389; Friedman 2010, 10).
279-284 (Isaiah 2:2-4, Jeremiah 23:56, Malachi 3:23-4, and selections from Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 98a, and Avot de-Rabbi Natan, Saadia Gaon, Maimonides, Zvi Hirsch Kalischer)
Thus Maimonides in the introduction to his Code counts forty generations backward from Rav Ashi, the traditional editor of the Babylonian Talmud, all the way to Moses, and concludes: "In the two Talmuds and the Tosefta, the Sifra and the Sifrei (names of Midrashic compilations), in all these are explained the permitted and the forbidden, the clean and the unclean, the liabilities and lack of liability, the unfit and the fit, as handed down from person to person from the mouth of Moses our teacher at Sinai.
The Babylonian Talmud contains numerous narratives concerning angels and demons in contrast to the relative lack of such narratives in the Jerusalem Talmud.
Rabbi Akiva cried over the beauty of wife of the wicked Tyranus Rufus and ("he spat, then laughed, and then wept") Babylonian Talmud, Abodah Zara 20a).
Situating Selden with respect to the branch of learning known as "Christian Hebraism," Rosenblatt argues that his mature work on the Babylonian Talmud, which until now has yet to be studied thoroughly in its own right, provides a way to link Selden's interests in statecraft to his skills as an antiquarian and legal historian.
Literally, gemara means "completion, "study," or "tradition," and refers to the part of the Babylonian Talmud that was redacted in the sixth century C.
See also Ecclesiasticus 7:12-13; Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 92a.
It is the Babylonian Talmud that has served as the authoritative statement of Jewish law, not its Palestinian counterpart.
2 In the 6th century, Rabbi Ashi edited the Babylonian Talmud ("Talmud Bavli" in Babylon, in modern-day Iraq).
For it was here that King Yehoikan built the first synagogue; here that Jews adopted the distinctive Ashuri (Assyrian) square Hebrew characters; and here, between 200 and 500 AD, that at the yarchei kallah--assembly of sages--compiled the Babylonian Talmud.