public relations

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public relations,

activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most favorable light. Thus, the goal of the public relations consultant is to create, through the organization of news and advertising, an advantageous image for his client, be it a business corporation, cultural institution, or private or public individual; toward this end—the making of favorable public opinion—many research techniques and communications media are used. Although many of the same methods are employed, public relations differs from propagandapropaganda,
systematic manipulation of public opinion, generally by the use of symbols such as flags, monuments, oratory, and publications. Modern propaganda is distinguished from other forms of communication in that it is consciously and deliberately used to influence group
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, which is generally government supported, international in scope, and political in nature. The earliest form of public relations and still the most widely practiced is publicity. The principal instrument of publicity is the press release, which provides the mass media with the raw material and background for a news story. The growth of modern public relations is generally attributed to the development of the mass media, which accelerated the spread of ideas and increased the importance of public opinion by giving more people access to current events. Public relations as a field can be traced to the early 20th cent., when American businessmen found it necessary to respond to attacks by social reformers. A milestone in the industry was the opening (1904) of Ivy Lee's publicity office in New York City. Soon there were other firms in the field, and by World War I the concept of public relations had gained general acceptance. Public relations techniques have been widely used in politics and political campaigns. By the 1960s the public relations agency had become a fact in American life, numbering among its clients branches of national, state, and local government, industry, labor, professional and religious groups, and some foreign countries.

Bibliography

See B. R. Canfield, Public Relations (5th ed. 1968); E. L. Bernays, The Engineering of Consent (3d ed. 1969) and Public Relations (1970); S. M. Cutlip and A. H. Center, Effective Public Relations (4th ed. 1971); J. F. Awad, The Power of Public Relations (1985); E. W. Brody and G. C. Stone, Public Relations Research (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
And in one bad PR move, Siggraph handlers told journalists they were not entitled to the goody bags that the graphics geeks were queuing to collect.
Despite the bad PR, Morgan Stanley upgraded Colgate to Overweight, citing cost savings, strong operating fundamentals and the weak dollar as providing a potential upside to earnings estimates
bad PR and lawsuits could be right around the corner.
"At best, it's embarrassing, bad PR, at worst it could have a serious effect on their business," said Threat Focus Inc's Kevin Nelson.
But Interfor is not one to fret over bad PR. The company has more than 500 violations of BC forest regulations to its credit.
I'm as committed to nonviolence as the next good Christian soldier, and I know rioting makes for bad PR, but I must confess that it even thrilled me when those wild children trashed McDonald's and The Gap.
The raking of mud was replaced by the flinging of fur and feather, with the best examples written up in textbooks -- environmental textbooks about bad PR. The spotted owls and old growth forests were lost in the fray of bigger and better communication campaigns.
After all, the RFT is now part of a corporation and we know how sensitive corporate bosses are to bad PR.
Indeed so-called 'quite diplomacy' may have got very bad PR of late, but it is still going on, and should keep the Government from dropping the idea of transition entirely.
Now, before any outraged defenders of the Big J start pummeling me with rolled-up copies of the First Amendment and shouting out horror stories of PR people who have done them wrong, I want to say that I am not going to stoop to trading stories of bad journalism, a la Janice Cook; for stories of bad PR, a la Exxon Valdez.
But in an age where bad PR can travel around the world in seconds, it's worth stopping to think about whether you've ticked all those essential boxes.
"When this issue was raised in the committee Facebook group chat, as well as by the Treasurer with senior officers, it was dismissed due to fears of bad PR.