Paekche

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Paekche

 

a Korean state that, along with Koguryo and Silla, emerged at the beginning of the Common Era. Paekche formed as a result of the disintegration of primitive clan relations among the Mahan tribes, which inhabited the central and southwestern Korean Peninsula.

According to Korean chronicles, judicial regulations, for example, for the protection of private property, first appeared in the third century, as did official ranks. The formation of a state superstructure was probably completed during the second half of the fourth century. Also at this time Buddhism was introduced as the official religion (384). The socioeconomic nature of the Paekche state is disputable. Evidently, state ownership of land existed, and the state machinery exploited the direct producers, who were obligated to pay taxes and perform labor and military obligations and were subjected to requisitions in kind. Apparently, some sort of role was also played by the exploitation of slaves, usually prisoners of war.

From the end of the fourth century, Paekche engaged in a conflict with Koguryo, which was striving to seize the southern lands. Paekche’s brief military successes gave way to crushing defeats, and Paekche lost its possessions in central Korea. Its capital was moved from Hansong (now Kwangju) to Ungjin (now Kongju) in 475 and to Sabi (now Puyo) in 538. Wars in the fifth to seventh centuries with powerful neighbors, especially Silla, exhausted Paekche. The armies of Silla and the Chinese T’ang dynasty captured Paekche’s capital in 660. Paekche then came under the power of the T’ang conquerors. At the end of the seventh century, it became part of the unified Silla state.

The culture of Paekche exerted a notable influence on the development of early feudal Japanese culture.

REFERENCES

Istorii Korei, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from Korean.)
Istoriia Korei: S drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei, vol. 1. Moscow, 1974.

M. N. PAK

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This festival, one of the oldest cultural festivals in the country, highlights the golden days of the Baekje Kingdom (18 B.C.
The details--both in production and in stylistic choices--of the roof tiles illustrate the differences between each of the Three Kingdoms (being Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla).
The Three Kingdoms era in Korea refers to the period in which three kingdoms - Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla - ruled the country.
The exception to the rule, to the Korean rule, but actually conforming to the rule of other countries, was what happened to the aristocracy of Baekje ?
"Along with the Baekje gilt-bronze incense burner and the Sansumunjeon (clay tiles with landscape in relief), the wooden artifacts will work as precious cultural artifacts that hold the Baekje culture and also the mature culture of Taoism," Kim added.
Seokguram Grotto and Bulguk Temple; Jongmyo Shrine; and Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon (Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks) in 1995; Changdeok Palace and Hwaseong Fortress in 1997; Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa dolmen sites; and Gyeongju historic areas in 2000; Jeju Volcanic Island in 2007, Royal Tombs of Joseon in 2009; Hahoe and Yangdong historic villages in 2010; Namhansanseong in 2014; Baekje historic areas in 2015; and Sansa (Buddhist mountain monasteries) in 2018.
The pagoda in Iksan, North Jeolla Province, is believed to have been built by King Mu, the 30th king of Baekje, who was in power 600-641 AD.
The book, which records the history of the Silla, Baekje and Goguryeo kingdoms, describes sightings of lotus lanterns at Hwangryong Temple in 866 during the reign of King Gyeongmoon of Silla and in 890 during the reign of Queen Jinsung of Silla.