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Begram; ruins of the ancient Kushan city of Kapisa in Afghanistan, 60 km north of Kabul. Excavations have been carried out since 1936 by French archaeologists, first J. Hacken, and later by R. Ghirshman. The city existed from the second century B. C.until the middle of the fourth century A. D., had a regular plan, and was surrounded by thick walls with towers. A main street, the palace, and dwellings have been excavated. The various artistic articles (ceramics, glass, bronze) that have been discovered include both local items and those imported from India, China, and Rome. Carved bone plates depicting dancing girls were found in the palace.
REFERENCESMandel’shtam, A. M. “O nekotorykh rezul’tatakh rabot Frantsuz-skoi arkheologicheskoi missii ν Afganistane.” In the collection Sovetskaia arkheologiia, vol. 21. Moscow-Leningrad, 1954.
Masson, V. M., and V. A. Romodin. Istoriia Afganistana, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964. Pages 170–76.
Ghirshman, R. Begram. Cairo, 1946.